Early erratic flight response of the lucerne moth to the quiet echolocation calls of distant bats

  title={Early erratic flight response of the lucerne moth to the quiet echolocation calls of distant bats},
  author={Ryo Nakano and Andrew C Mason},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
Nocturnal insects have evolved ultrasound-sensitive hearing in response to predation pressures from echolocating insectivorous bats. Flying tympanate moths take various evasive actions when they detect bat cries, including turning away, performing a steering/zigzagging flight and ceasing flight. In general, infrequent ultrasonic pulses with low sound intensities that are emitted by distant bats evoke slight turns, whereas frequent and loud ultrasonic pulses of nearby bats evoke erratic or rapid… 
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