A prospective evaluation was conducted of Q-switched neodymium: YAG laser capsulotomy in 53 eyes followed for one postoperative month. The first 31 eyes were seen at two-hour intervals for the first eight hours, and the remaining eyes were checked only at the second postoperative hour during that day. Eighty-nine percent of eyes required a pulse setting of less than 1.7 mJ to successfully penetrate the posterior capsule. Visual acuity was improved in 91% of eyes. A transient immediate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was seen in over 75% of treated eyes, and one-third had an IOP elevation greater than 10 mmHg over the preoperative IOP. This elevation was most common in glaucomatous eyes and occurred in almost one-half of the treated eyes by the second postoperative hour. This IOP change did not correlate with the degree of inflammation, bleeding, anterior chamber debris, or total energy delivered. Minimal iris bleeding occurred in 9% of treated eyes and was associated with iridocapsular adhesions. Eighty-one percent of eyes with posterior chamber implants developed some degree of lens damage.