Early alterations in the synthesis of proteins which bind to single-stranded DNA have been examined following the onset of transformation in NRK cells transformed by a heat-sensitive mutant (ts339) of Rous sarcoma virus. Transformation was initiated by shifting quiescent cultures from nonpermissive to permissive temperatures. Cultures were prelabelled with [3H]leucine for several generations at the non-permissive temperature, and with [35S]methionine at times after shift to the permissive temperature. Cytosol extracts were passed through sequential columns of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA bound to cellulose. Within the first hour of transformation there was an increase in the synthetic rate of proteins binding tightly to single-stranded DNA, but not to double-stranded DNA. More loosely bound protein fractions showed no such early synthetic increase. Electrophoresis of the fraction eluted from single stranded DNA-cellulose with 2 M NaCl demonstrated the presence of a major protein of 93 000 daltons, which comprised more than 0.1% of the cytosol protein. The synthesis of the 93 000 dalton protein increased continuously over the first 4 h interval after the onset of transformation. The synthetic rate of a 35 000 dalton protein, a major DNA-binding polypeptide found in mammalian cells, began to increase after a 1-h lag, following the onset of transformation. The protein fraction containing the 93 000 dalton protein had considerable unwinding activity, depressing the melting temperature of poly(dA-dT) by 39 degrees C. The protein fraction containing the bulk of the 35 000 dalton protein did not have unwinding activity. Transformation-induced DNA synthesis was measured in cells made permeable to deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates at times after shift to the permissive temperature. It was determined that synthesis of DNA began within the first 1--2 h after the onset of transformation. We conclude that the early transformation-associated synthesis of SS93 and perhaps other proteins binding to single-stranded DNA may be related to early transformation-associated changes preparatory to DNA replication and subsequent growth.