Early X-Ray Flares in GRBs

@article{Ruffini2017EarlyXF,
  title={Early X-Ray Flares in GRBs},
  author={R. Ruffini and Y. Wang and Yerlan Aimuratov and Ulisses Barres DE Almeida and L. M. Becerra and C. L. Bianco and Y. C. Chen and Mile Karlica and M. Kova{\vc}evi{\'c} and L Y Li and Julio David Melon Fuksman and R. Moradi and Marco Muccino and Ana V. Penacchioni and G. B. Pisani and Daria Primorac and Jorge Armando Rueda and Soroush Shakeri and G. V. Vereshchagin and She-Sheng Xue},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2017},
  volume={852}
}
We analyze the early X-ray flares in the GRB “flare–plateau–afterglow” (FPA) phase observed by Swift-XRT. The FPA occurs only in one of the seven GRB subclasses: the binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe). This subclass consists of long GRBs with a carbon–oxygen core and a neutron star (NS) binary companion as progenitors. The hypercritical accretion of the supernova (SN) ejecta onto the NS can lead to the gravitational collapse of the NS into a black hole. Consequently, one can observe a GRB… 

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