Early Pastoral Nomadism and the Settlement of Lower Mesopotamia

  title={Early Pastoral Nomadism and the Settlement of Lower Mesopotamia},
  author={Juris Zariņ{\vs}},
  journal={Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research},
  pages={31 - 65}
  • J. Zariņš
  • Published 1 November 1990
  • History
  • Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
The Akkadians' nomadic origins have generally been assumed. However, the conventional prehistoric archaeological picture fails to illuminate those origins and the Akkadians' involvement in Akkad. Thus the origins of pastoral nomadism must be sought in the context of mixed farming within the Fertile Crescent, specifically during the PPNB. Subsequent expansion into marginal agricultural lands led to a symbiotic relationship between pastoral nomads and farmers. The Akkadians seem to have moved… 
New Light on Human Prehistory in the Arabo-Persian Gulf Oasis
The emerging picture of prehistoric Arabia suggests that early modern humans were able to survive periodic hyperarid oscillations by contracting into environmental refugia around the coastal margins
Regional Approaches to Mesopotamian Archaeology: The Contribution of Archaeological Surveys
This work synthesizes and critically evaluates the results of field surveys conducted over the last 20 years in southern (lower) and northern (upper) Mesopotamia, with emphasis placed on the
Early State Formation in Southern Mesopotamia: Sea Levels, Shorelines, and Climate Change
ABSTRACT The evolution of the earliest complex state-level societies and cities from small sedentary communities took place in southern Mesopotamia between 8000 and 5000 cal yrs BP during the ‘Ubaid
Lithic Analysis and Cultural Change in the Late Pre-Pottery Neolithic of North Syria
The late Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) represents an important period of transition in North Syria, with the evolution from primitive to more advanced farming communities. The transition took place
Pastoralist landscapes and social interaction in bronze age Eurasia
Offering a fresh archaeological interpretation, this work reconceptualizes the Bronze Age prehistory of the vast Eurasian steppe during one of the most formative and innovative periods of human
Tell el-Ḥibr: A Rock Shelter Occupation of the Fourth Millennium B. C. E. in the Jordanian Bâdiya
  • A. Betts
  • Geology
    Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
  • 1992
Excavations at a rock shelter in eastern Jordan have provided new evidence for exploitation of the dry steppe about the middle of the fourth millennium B. C. E. The findings of the el-Ḥibr
Christian monasticism on the eve of Islam: Kilwa (Saudi Arabia) — new evidence
Little knowledge and understanding of Kilwa has been acquired since its discovery in the 1930s. Headed by Saba Fares, research began in 2008 which would provide more thorough documentation of the
Middle Arabian Littoral
The Arabian peninsula has been arid throughout the Holocene. However, in the middle Holocene a period of higher precipitation led to an expansion of grasslands and a consequent increase in both plant
The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations
The southerly pattern of decreasing expansion time estimates is consistent with the serial drift and founder effect processes, and accordingly J1e parallels the establishment of rain-fed agriculture and semi-nomadic herders throughout the Fertile Crescent.


Prehistoric Environment and Settlement in the Azraq Basin. A Report on the 1982 Survey Season
During the past decade there has been a great increase in prehistoric survey and excavation in the arid lands of south-west Asia. There have been three, main reasons for this. Firstly, the need to
A Paleosubsistence Model for Early Neolithic Occupation of the Western Negev Desert
  • A. Simmons
  • Economics
    Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
  • 1981
gions where Neolithic technologies can be documented without a concomitant food production subsistence base. Indeed, the concept of a nonfood-producing Neolithic society appears antithetical to the
Animal exploitation in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period at Wadi Tbeik. Southern Sinai
The faunal remains from the "PPNB" site of Wadi Tbeik (southern Sinai) provide evidence for the presence of a nomadic society with a seasonal pattern of habitation, practicing a mode of hunting
The Neolithic-Chalcolithic Transition and the Qatifian of the Northern Negev and Sinai
During the years 19291930 E. Macdonald (1932) surveyed and excavated several protohistoric sites in the Nahal Besor area, adjacent to Tell Fara. A few of Macdonald's sites were later re-excavated and
New Light on the Early History of the Ancient Near East
NE of the more significant problems in the early history of the Near East revolves about the arrival of the Sumerians in Mesopotamia. Briefly put, it may be stated as follows: Were the Sumerians the
The Neolithic of the Near East
This critique of The Neolithic of the Near East includes five major sections which will be considered in the following sequence: 1) background and author's purpose, 2) previous areal syntheses, 3)
The Archaeological uses of Cuneiform Documents: Patterns of Occupation at the City of Kish
It may be said for most Mesopotamian excavations that information contained in cuneiform documents has not been fully used to give cultural elaboration to the bare outline derived from architecture,
The Fauna of Umm Dabaghiyah: A Preliminary Report
The excavations at Umm Dabaghiyah yielded a considerable amount of animal remains. From the rich sample 6,580 specimens could be identified, all from well-dated archaeological contexts. The species
Noah's Flood Reconsidered
During the last decade hydrographers, geographers, and geologists have applied their specialised knowledge to the geophysical systems which condition the life of man in the Mesopotamian plain. While
Excavations in Iraq, 1977–78
  • History
  • 1979
The years 1977 and 1978 witnessed a spectacular increase in the number of archaeological excavations in Iraq, both Iraqi and foreign. The chief reason for this was the intensive rescue operation