Early Holocene coca chewing in northern Peru

  title={Early Holocene coca chewing in northern Peru},
  author={Tom D Dillehay and Jack Rossen and Donald Ugent and Anathasios Karathanasis and V{\'i}ctor V{\'a}squez and Patricia J. Netherly},
  pages={939 - 953}
Chewing coca in South America began by at least 8000 cal BP: our authors found and identified coca leaves of that date in house floors in the Nanchoc Valley, Peru. There were also pieces of calcite — which is used by chewers to bring out the alkaloids from the leaves. Excavation and chemical analysis at a group of neighbouring sites suggests that specialists were beginning to extract and supply lime or calcite, and by association coca, as a community activity at about the same time as… 

Ancient Use of Coca Leaves in the Peruvian Central Highlands

Coca, of the genus Erythroxylum, is a stimulant and painkiller that played key roles within the Inka state. As reported by the early Spanish chroniclers, coca was the most important plant offering

Culturas del Pleistoceno Final y el Holoceno Temprano en el Ecuador

Evidence for the earliest inhabitants of the territory known as Ecuador demonstrates the limitations of the archaeological record inthe highlands and along the Andean slopes, and the relative

New World Paleoethnobotany in the New Millennium (2000–2013)

This article evaluates the current state of paleoethnobotany since Hastorf’s 1999 review published in this journal. We discuss advances in methods, ancient subsistence reconstructions, the origins

Tracking shifts in coca use in the Moche Valley: analysis of oral health indicators and dental calculus microfossils

Abstract In this article we explore the use of coca in the Moche Valley of north costal Perú during the Early Intermediate Period. To do so we examined the dental remains of 173 residents of Cerro

Erythroxylum in Focus: An Interdisciplinary Review of an Overlooked Genus

The genus Erythroxylum contains species used by indigenous people of South America long before the domestication of plants and contain untapped resources for the benefit of mankind in the form of foods, pharmaceuticals, phytotherapeutic products, and other high-value plant-derived metabolites.

The Origins of Coca: Museum Genomics Reveals Multiple Independent Domestications from Progenitor Erythroxylum gracilipes

This chronology of coca domestication reveals different Holocene peoples in South America were able to independently transform the same natural resource to serve their needs; in this case, a workaday stimulant.

Coca ritual, aristocrats, and the landscape of power on the coast of Ecuador in the Early Regional Development period (100 BC–AD 300)

Elaborate pottery figurines indicate that ritualized coca consumption was central to the function and identity of male aristocrats of coastal Ecuador during the Early Regional Development period (100

Distribution of archaeological sites of Ancient Peru is linked to climatology and natural vegetation

Abstract In this article, we try to discover a parallelism among climate and bioclimate belts, use of the territory, and previously studied plant communities, taking into account historical and

Coca leaves in the context of the central Andean Wari state

Introduction The central Andean Middle Horizon (ca. 550 – 1100 CE) was a period during which the Wari State emerged in the Peruvian central highland valley of Ayacucho and established political and



Prehistoric dental calculus gives evidence for coca in early coastal Ecuador

It is argued here that the heavy calculus accumulations are the result of habitual, secular coca chewing in late Chorrera times, which supports the hypothesis of prehistoric trade in coca, probably in exchange for mollusc shells, with inhabitants of the eastern Andean slopes.

Preceramic Adoption of Peanut, Squash, and Cotton in Northern Peru

Detailed radiocarbon dating data provide evidence for early use of peanut and squash in the human diet and of cotton for industrial purposes and indicate that horticultural economies in parts of the Andes took root by about 10,000 years ago.

Erythroxylum coca: Microscopical Identification in Powdered and Carbonized Archaeological Material

Abstract Carbonized material adhering to the cavity wall was obtained from a wooden Peruvian illa (animal figure), held in the archaeological collections of the Museo de La Plata. This sample was

Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru

An examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected.

Middle Preceramic Public and Residential Sites on the Forested Slope of the Western Andes, Northern Peru

A decade of intermittent archaeological research in the upper Zaña Valley in northern Peru has documented an intensive Middle Preceramic period (ca. 6000—4200 B.C.) occupation in the tropical-forest

Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes.

New archeological evidence reveals early environmental manipulation and incipient food production in an artificially created wet agroecosystem rather than simply the intensive harvesting or gardening of plants in moist natural areas.

La Etnobotánica del Perú Desde la Prehistoria al Presente

This small volume comes at an appropriate moment (marriage + 10!) to evaluate the successes, failures, limits, opportunities and challenges, building on a larger, more technical volume that evaluated the state-of-the-art of how to certify NTFPs and how this might be done for 23 products or groups of products.

Names, types, and distribution of neotropical species of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae)

A list is provided of all 358 taxa ofErythroxylum described from the Neotropics through the year 2000, including type specimen citations, probable synonymy, geographic distribution, and designation

Pleistocene changes in the flora of the high tropical Andes

Geological data show that high Andean habitats have been available for plant colonization only since the end of the Tertiary. The manner in which plant species moved into these habitats, the times

Pleistocene Changes in the Fauna and Flora of South America

Biological data and supportive geological evidence show that climatic events during the last million or so years have affected the biota of South America as much as the Pleistocene glacial changes affected theBiotas of Eurasia and North America.