Early Controversies over Athetosis: I. Clinical Features, Differentiation from other Movement Disorders, Associated Conditions, and Pathology

  title={Early Controversies over Athetosis: I. Clinical Features, Differentiation from other Movement Disorders, Associated Conditions, and Pathology},
  author={Douglas J. Lanska},
  journal={Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements},
  • D. Lanska
  • Published 14 January 2013
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Background Since the description of athetosis in 1871 by American neurologist William Alexander Hammond (1828–1900) the disorder has been a source of controversy, as were many aspects of Hammond’s career. Methods Primary sources have been used to review controversies in the 50-year period since the initial description of athetosis, in particular those concerning clinical features, differentiation from other movement disorders, associated conditions, and pathology. Controversies concerning… 
Early Controversies Over Athetosis: II. Treatment
  • D. Lanska
  • Medicine
    Tremor and other hyperkinetic movements
  • 2013
Background Athetosis has been controversial since it was first described by William Hammond in 1871; many aspects of Hammond’s career were equally controversial. Methods Primary sources have been
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ATHETOSIS AND THE BASAL GANGLIA: Review of the Literature and Study of Forty-Two Cases
The first description of what is now called double athetosis was given in 1873 by Shaw 10 from several cases in which "grotesque," involuntary movements of the fingers and toes occurred unilaterally.
The condition finally came to be known as "St Vitus' dance" because some of the victims recovered at the shrine of St. Vitus, in Saverne, France, and this term was subsequently applied to all disorders characterized by hypermotility.
Birth-related syndromes of athetosis and kernicterus.
Seminal figures in the history of Movement Disorders: Hammond, Osler, and Huntington. Part 11 of the MDS‐sponsored history of Movement Disorders exhibit, Barcelona, June 2000
William A. Hammond was a key figure in the development of neurology as a specialty in the United States and wrote the first American neurologic text entitled: “Treatise on Diseases of the Nervous System” (1871), helped foster theDevelopment of exclusive specialty societies and medical journals, and also developed, adopted, and promoted various new diagnostic and therapeutic technologies.
The pathological anatomy of posthemiplegic athetosis.
It is proposed that degeneration of the thalamic nuclei receiving striatal efferents appears to remove an essential modulating influence on the corticospinal system which can only become manifest if this system is relatively preserved.
History of dystonia: Part 4 of the MDS‐sponsored history of movement disorders exhibit, Barcelona, June, 2000
In 1897, Barraquer-Roviralta described a patient with generalized dystonia under the term of athetosis, a term previously used primarily by W.A. Hammond, leading clinicians and researchers to focus on the structures Hammond had identified as abnormal in athetotic structures, namely the basal ganglia.
It has previously been pointed out that the diagnosis of "dystonia" has been indiscriminately applied to all cases in which dystonic symptoms appear and was to be regarded "merely as a variety of extrapyramidal disease whose motor disorder is predominantly dySTONic in order, rather than a distinct clinical entity".
In 1916 I1reported several cases of a disorder occurring in one family, which seemed to me to belong to the group known as pseudosclerosis, probably a family form of a lesion of the lenticular
Seminal figures in the history of Movement Disorders: Sydenham, Parkinson, and Charcot: Part 6 of the MDS‐sponsored history of Movement Disorders exhibit, Barcelona, June 2000
Especially interested in epidemic illnesses, Sydenham documented the rhythmic periodicity of malaria, scarlatina, and measles, and can be viewed as a very early medical epidemiologist.
Classification and definition of disorders causing hypertonia in childhood.
The purpose of the workshop and this article are to define the terms "spasticity," "dystonia," and "rigidity" as they are used to describe clinical features of hypertonia in children to allow differentiation of clinical features even when more than 1 is present simultaneously.