EXPOSE, an Astrobiological Exposure Facility on the International Space Station - from Proposal to Flight

  title={EXPOSE, an Astrobiological Exposure Facility on the International Space Station - from Proposal to Flight},
  author={Elke Rabbow and Gerda Horneck and Petra Rettberg and J. U. Schott and Corinna Panitz and Andrea L’Afflitto and Ralf von Heise-Rotenburg and R. Willnecker and Pietro Baglioni and Jason Hatton and J. Dettmann and Ren{\'e} Demets and G{\"u}nther Reitz},
  journal={Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres},
Following an European Space Agency announcement of opportunity in 1996 for ”Externally mounted payloads for 1st utilization phase” on the International Space Station (ISS), scientists working in the fields of astrobiology proposed experiments aiming at long-term exposure of a variety of chemical compounds and extremely resistant microorganisms to the hostile space environment. The ESA exposure facility EXPOSE was built and an operations´ concept was prepared. The EXPOSE experiments were… 

The astrobiological mission EXPOSE-R on board of the International Space Station

Abstract EXPOSE-R flew as the second of the European Space Agency (ESA) EXPOSE multi-user facilities on the International Space Station. During the mission on the external URM-D platform of the

EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

The EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

Comparison of radiation measurements by BTN and R3DR instruments outside International Space Station

The article presents the first attempt to analyze data obtained simultaneously by the Russian BTN and Bulgarian R3DR instruments, flown in 2010 on the Zvezda module of the International space station

Mutagenesis in bacterial spores exposed to space and simulated martian conditions: data from the EXPOSE-E spaceflight experiment PROTECT.

The data show the unique mutagenic power of space and martian surface conditions as a consequence of DNA injuries induced by solar UV radiation and space vacuum or the low pressure of Mars.

Effect of Space Flight Factor on Dormant Stages in Aquatic Organisms: A Review of International Space Station and Terrestrial Experiments

This work is a review of the experiments carried out in the Russian segment of the ISS (inside and outside) from 2005 to 2016 on the effect of the space flight factor on the resting stages of

The PROCESS experiment: an astrochemistry laboratory for solid and gaseous organic samples in low-earth orbit.

The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009 to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments.

Cosmic radiation exposure of biological test systems during the EXPOSE-E mission.

In the frame of the EXPOSE-E mission on the Columbus external payload facility EuTEF on board the International Space Station, passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples, demonstrating the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPose-E facility.

Time profile of cosmic radiation exposure during the EXPOSE-E mission: the R3DE instrument.

The main results of the present study include the following: three different radiation sources were detected and quantified-galactic cosmic rays (GCR), energetic protons from the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region of the inner radiation belt, and energetic electrons from the outer radiation belt (ORB).

The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

Abstract The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose



The MATROSHKA facility--dose determination during an EVA.

The main task of the MATROSHKA facility is to measure particle fluence and energy spectra, dose and dose rates outside and inside--including organ dose determination--in an anthropomorphic phantom mounted on the outside of the Space Station with passive and active dosemeter systems.

Past, present and future of Biopan

Exobiological Experiments in Earth Orbit

Investigation of radiation doses in open space using TLD detectors.

Thermoluminescent lithium fluoride detectors have been applied to determine the radiation doses inside the ESA-Facility BIOPAN and the depth dose distribution outside the spacecraft is of great interest for radiation protection of astronauts working in open space.

Neutron detection on the Foton-M2 satellite by a track etch detector stack.

One of the RADO experiments was dedicated to the detection of the primary cosmic rays and secondary neutrons by a track etch detector stack, calibrated at high-energy particle accelerators and neutron generators.

Biological space experiments for the simulation of Martian conditions: UV radiation and Martian soil analogues.

Depth dose distribution measurement on the Foton-M2 bio-satellite by TLD technique

Survival of microorganisms in space protected by meteorite material: results of the experiment 'EXOBIOLOGIE' of the PERSEUS mission.