author={Steven Oliver and Kai Ostwald},
  journal={Journal of East Asian Studies},
  pages={129 - 156}
Abstract The People's Action Party (PAP) of Singapore is one of the world's longest ruling dominant parties, having won every general election since the country's independence in 1965. Why do Singaporeans consistently vote for the PAP, contrary to the expectations of democratization theories? We argue that valence considerations—specifically, perceptions of party credibility—are the main factor in the voting behavior of Singapore's electorate, and are critical to explaining the PAP's resilience… 
Post-political Elections: Opposition Party Rallies as Popular Mobilisations in Singapore
ABSTRACT Although opposition parties in Singapore do not win a large share of votes in parliamentary elections, opposition rallies draw massive turnouts and vociferous expressions of support. Few
“New normal” no more: democratic backsliding in Singapore after 2015
ABSTRACT After the “watershed” General Elections (GE) in 2011, Singapore seemed primed for greater democratization. The ruling People’s Action Party (PAP) adopted a softer tone, and promised an
The Invisible Electorate
  • Emily Ching
  • Art
    The Hard State, Soft City of Singapore
  • 2020
This chapter explores the opposition campaigns during Singapore’s 2015 General Elections, to suggest that elections in this one party-dominant state can fruitfully be thought of as a site of
A spatial valence model of political participation in China
  • Jason Y. Wu
  • Political Science
    Journal of Theoretical Politics
  • 2019
In spatial models of political competition in democracies, citizens vote for the party or candidate that is the closest to their own ideological position, while in valence models, voters decide on
Digital learning and extending electoral authoritarianism in Singapore
ABSTRACT This study demonstrates how a hegemonic party learns from its early missteps to become an adept social media user, competing and expanding its digital influence. Singapore’s long-standing
Singapore’s Responses to the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Critical Assessment
This article reviews how Singapore has responded to the COVID-19 pandemic, from late-January to early May, 2020, through the three-phase approach to “learning”: in-between learning, trial-and-error


Complementary Institutions in Authoritarian Regimes: The Everyday Politics of Constituency Service in Singapore
  • Elvin Ong
  • Political Science
    Journal of East Asian Studies
  • 2015
Recent political science research has suggested that autocrats adopt a variety of institutions such as nominally democratic elections and ruling parties to buttress authoritarian durability. In this
Opposition Coordination in Singapore’s 2015 General Elections
Abstract Recent political science scholarship suggests that when opposition political parties are able to coalesce into a united coalition against an authoritarian regime, they will perform better in
Clientelism and Control: PAP’s Fight for Safety in GE2015
Abstract This article looks at the reasons the People’s Action Party (PAP) secured its decisive victory in the 2015 general election. The discussion examines the impact of the campaign and
Why Dominant Parties Lose: Mexico's Democratization in Comparative Perspective
Part I. The Macro Perspective: 1. A theory of single-party dominance and opposition party development 2. Dominant party advantages and opposition party failure, 1930s-90s Part II. The Micro
Valence Issues in African Elections
Previous analyses of African politics have mistaken parties’ dearth of position taking on issues as an absence of substantive electoral debate. The authors demonstrate that political parties tackle
A Return to Normal Politics: Singapore General Elections 2011
  • T. Chong
  • History
    Southeast Asian Affairs
  • 2012
Change is not always about the new. Occasionally, it is about the reappearance of the old. This is easily missed in a country that takes deep pride in perpetual self-transformation, and nowhere was
Change in Voting: Singapore's 2015 General Election
For Singaporeans, the year 2015 will be remembered for its grand celebrations of the nation’s 50th year of independence (SG50), as well as the demise of founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew. It was
Singapore Politics Under the People's Action Party
1. What is Remarkable about Singapore? 2. How Singapore Became Independent: Lee Kuan Yew and the People's Action Party (PAP) 3. Locations of Power: The state and the government 4. The People's Action
The Ideology of Pragmatism: Neo-liberal Globalisation and Political Authoritarianism in Singapore
Abstract This article uncovers the strongly ideological quality in Singapore's theory and practice of pragmatism. It also points to a strongly pragmatic quality in the ideological negotiations that