author={Thomas C. Peterson},
  journal={Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
  • T. Peterson
  • Published 1 August 2006
  • Environmental Science
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Questions have been raised about whether poor siting practices that have existed in recent years at some in situ weather-observing stations are causing a bias in U.S. temperature change analysis. This potential bias was examined using homogeneity-adjusted maximum, minimum, and mean temperature data from five stations in eastern Colorado—two with good current siting and three with poor current siting. No siting-induced bias was found in the homogeneity-adjusted data. Furthermore, the results… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Has poor station quality biased U.S. temperature estimates? Supplementary Information

Two independent surveys have found that about 70% of the thermometer stations in the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) dataset are currently poorly or badly sited. Previous investigations

Documentation of uncertainties and biases associated with surface temperature measurement sites for climate change assessment

The objective of this research is to determine whether poorly sited long-term surface temperature monitoring sites have been adjusted in order to provide spatially representative independent data for

Analysis of the impacts of station exposure on the U.S. Historical Climatology Network temperatures and temperature trends

[1] The recently concluded Surface Stations Project surveyed 82.5% of the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) stations and provided a classification based on exposure conditions of each

On the reliability of the U.S. surface temperature record

[1] Recent photographic documentation of poor siting conditions at stations in the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) has led to questions regarding the reliability of surface temperature

New bias adjustments reduce uncertainty in temperature trends for the United States

Since 1987, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has used observations from the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (HCN) to quantify

Analyzing bias in prominent climatic data sets

The majority of documented climatic data set biases can be divided into two categories: physical biases and calendar biases. Factors affecting the consistency and accuracy of the variable measurement

A New Method for Correcting Urbanization-Induced Bias in Surface Air Temperature Observations: Insights From Comparative Site-Relocation Data

The effect of urbanization on surface air temperature (SAT) is one of the most important systematic biases in SAT series of urban stations. Correcting this so-called urbanization bias has the

Influence of changes in the station location and measurement routine on the homogeneity of the temperature, wind speed and precipitation time series

Received 31 May 2012, in revised form 28 August 2012 Abstract. Changes in the location, instrumentation and measurement times are documented for three Estonian meteorological stations during the last

Benchmarking the performance of pairwise homogenization of surface temperatures in the United States

[1] Changes in the circumstances behind in situ temperature measurements often lead to biases in individual station records that, collectively, can also bias regional temperature trends. Since these

Comparisons of fi re weather indices using Canadian raw and homogenized weather data

Modifications to the environment around a weather station or changes in instrument result in discontinuities or shift in weather data. This paper asks the often ignored questions such as, “what are



Evaluation of Temperature Differences for Paired Stations of the U.S. Climate Reference Network

Abstract Adjustments to data observed at pairs of climate stations have been recommended to remove the biases introduced by differences between the stations in time of observation, temperature

Microclimate Exposures of Surface-Based Weather Stations: Implications For The Assessment of Long-Term Temperature Trends.

Abstract The U.S. Historical Climate Network is a subset of surface weather observation stations selected from the National Weather Service cooperative station network. The criteria used to select

Homogeneity adjustments of in situ atmospheric climate data: a review

Long-term in situ observations are widely used in a variety of climate analyses. Unfortunately, most decade- to century-scale time series of atmospheric data have been adversely impacted by

Comments on "Microclimate Exposures of Surface-Based Weather Stations"

e commend Davey and Pielke (2005) for their recent assessment of site exposures around U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) stations in eastern Colorado. In this brief note we comment on two

An evaluation of the time of observation bias adjustment in the U.S. Historical Climatology Network

The U.S. Historical Climatology Network (HCN) database contains statistical adjustments that address historical changes in observation time at each observing station in the network. A paper in 2002

Hemispheric and Large-Scale Surface Air Temperature Variations: An Extensive Revision and an Update to 2001.

This study is an extensive revision of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) land station temperature database that is used to produce a gridbox dataset of 58 latitude 3 58 longitude temperature

Effects of Recent Thermometer Changes in the Cooperative Station Network

During the past five years, the National Weather Service (NWS) has replaced over half of its liquid-in-glass maximum and minimum thermometers in wooden Cotton Region Shelters (CRSs) with

A Model to Estimate the Time of Observation Bias Associated with Monthly Mean Maximum, Minimum and Mean Temperatures for the United States

Abstract Hourly data for 79 stations in the United States are used to develop an empirical model which can be used to estimate the time of observation bias associated with different observation

United States Historical Climatology Network (US HCN) monthly temperature and precipitation data

This document describes a database containing monthly temperature and precipitation data for 1221 stations in the contiguous United States. This network of stations, known as the United States