EVOLUTION OF HELPING BEHAVIOR IN COOPERATIVELY BREEDING BIRDS

@article{Cockburn1998EVOLUTIONOH,
  title={EVOLUTION OF HELPING BEHAVIOR IN COOPERATIVELY BREEDING BIRDS},
  author={Andrew Cockburn},
  journal={Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics},
  year={1998},
  volume={29},
  pages={141-177}
}
  • A. Cockburn
  • Published 1 November 1998
  • Biology
  • Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics
▪ Abstract It has recently been argued that the paradox of helping behavior in birds has been solved (73). This optimism may be premature. I argue that there is no obvious dichotomy between cooperative societies based on natal philopatry and the formation of extended families, and those formed via recruitment of unrelated individuals into coalitions. Tests of the effect of helping behavior suggest that kinship may have been overemphasized for male helpers but underestimated for females. The… 
Breeding together: kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates.
TLDR
It now seems likely that the evolutionary mechanisms maintaining cooperative breeding are diverse and that, in some species, the direct benefits of helping may be sufficient to maintain cooperative societies.
The Evolution of Cooperative Breeding in Vertebrates
TLDR
The range of subsequent benefits (indirect benefits – such as improving reproduction and survival of related individuals or direct benefits –such as gaining breeding experience, benefits of future cooperation with raised recruits or gaining a share in reproduction) that favour the evolution of helping are revealed.
The evolution and ecology of cooperative breeding in vertebrates
Cooperative breeding – in which some adults forgo independent breeding and remain as subordinates within a group helping to raise the offspring of others – occurs in between 3% and 10% of
Investment patterns and kinship cues in a cooperatively breeding bird
TLDR
It is found that sealed-bid and conditional cooperation models are inappropriate to describe investment in riflemen, and possible reasons for this are discussed, and the validity of provisioning rate as a measure of food delivery in Riflemen is demonstrated.
Kin Selection in Cooperative Alliances of Carrion Crows
TLDR
It is shown that a population of carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) fully fits the central prediction of kin selection theory that cooperative breeding should arise among relatives.
The Evolution and Ecology of Cooperative Breeding in
TLDR
That some individuals spend part, or all, of their lives helping others to reproduce contradicts the concept of ‘selfish’ natural selection and provides an intriguing evolutionary paradox.
Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider
TLDR
Investigating the role of kinship in cooperative feeding of periodic social spider Stegodyphus lineatus provides clear experimental evidence for net benefits of cooperating with kin, and shows nepotism favors group retention and reduces the conflict between selfish interests and the interests of the group.
Sex differences in helping effort reveal the effect of future reproduction on cooperative behaviour in birds
TLDR
It is found that the sex which is more likely to breed in its natal group invests more in helping, suggesting that in addition to kin selection, helping in family groups is shaped by future reproduction.
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References

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Avian Communal Breeding Systems
TLDR
Avian communal breeding systems feature precisely that phenomenon that seems most likely to require kin selection as a part of its evolutionary explanation, namely, the presence of a form of operational altruism known as helping behavior.
Evolution of eusociality: the advantage of assured fitness returns
TLDR
It is shown that an `assured fitness returns' model provides a selective pressure for the evolution of worker behaviour which is at least about as strong as that of haplodiploidy, but free from such requirements of the latter as high levels of worker-brood genetic relatedness and ability of workers to manipulate brood sex ratios.
Limits to cooperative polyandry in birds
TLDR
It is concluded that female choice may set a limit to cooperative polyandry in birds because the number of helpers at the nest is less when helping depends on shared paternity rather than on collateral kinship with the brood.
The Benefits-of-Philopatry Hypothesis for the Evolution of Cooperative Breeding: Variation in Territory Quality and Group Size Effects
TLDR
A "benefits of philopatry" hypothesis is described, which proposes that nonbreeding helpers remain at home only when there is a net fitness benefit to doing so, and local patterns of variation in quality among individual territories may play an important role in the evolution of different social systems.
Helping at the Nest in European Bee-Eaters: Who Helps and Why?
TLDR
An overview of helping behaviour is provided and a focus is concentrates on the types of individuals who become helpers and the selection pressures that favour helping by them.
The Evolution of Helping. II. The Role of Behavioral Conflict
  • S. Emlen
  • Psychology
    The American Naturalist
  • 1982
In part I (Emlen 1982), an ecological constraints model was developed to predict the circumstances under which grown offspring would remain in familial units with their parents. Such retention was
Communal breeding in green woodhoopoes as a case for reciprocity
TLDR
Information is reported on a tropical, communal bird, the green wood-hoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus), that suggests helping is a strategy for personal gain, at least in that particular species.
The Evolution of Helping. I. An Ecological Constraints Model
  • S. Emlen
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1982
TLDR
It is argued that a necessary first step for the evolution of cooperative breeding is a substructuring of the population into small, stable, social units; in most known cases these are extended-family units.
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