EVOLUTION OF CLIMATIC ADAPTATION IN HOMEOTHERMS

@article{Scholander1955EVOLUTIONOC,
  title={EVOLUTION OF CLIMATIC ADAPTATION IN HOMEOTHERMS},
  author={P. F. Scholander},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={1955},
  volume={9}
}
Climatic adaptation in warm-blooded animals has been a subject of much concern to ecologists and evolutionists. With the formulation of the climatic rules of Bergmann and Allen it has become almost dogma that a reduction in the surface area relative to weight is a morphogenic factor of prime importance in the evolution of cold-hardy species or races. This idea is based on the simple reasoning that, other factors being equal, the less surface area an animal has the less heat it would lose… 

BERGMANN'S RULE AND CLIMATIC ADAPTATION IN WOODRATS (NEOTOMA)

Data on the temperature regulation of representatives of 10 populations of woodrats permits a direct evaluation of the relationships between metabolism, heat loss, body size, and environmental temperature, and indicate the major avenues of climatic adaptation in this group of rodents.

WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND THE EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY OF PACIFIC TREE TOADS

It is stated that poikilotherms tend to have their largest species in warmer rather than colder climates, but these authors examine variation between, rather than within taxa.

Hominine morphology, climatic determinism and an alternative hypothesis

An alternative hypothesis is advanced which relegates the influence of the climate to an indirect role only and explains the extreme physiques of Pygmies and Nilotics by the relative sedentism associated with the adoption of agriculture.

THE ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCES OF INTRASPECIFIC TRENDS OF VARIATION IN WING LENGTH AND BODY SIZE AMONG BIRD SPECIES

This paper describes the various trends of clinal variation in wing length in continental bird species having wide distributions and attempts to evaluate the several hypotheses put forward by various workers as possible explanations for the actions and interactions of the selection forces apparently responsible for these trends.

BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF MAN TO HIS ENVIRONMENT: HEAT, COLD, ALTITUDE, AND NUTRITION

  • M. Newman
  • Biology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1961
This synthesis is primarily concerned with the bodily adjustments of native peoples to the environmental extremes; it is not designed to cover the voluminous literature on short-term acclimatization in whites.

Morphological Change to Birds over 120 Years Is Not Explained by Thermal Adaptation to Climate Change

There is no support for the hypothesis of decreasing body size because of climate change and non-consistent trends of change in surrogates for size within species indicate that fluctuations are influenced by factors other than temperature.

AN APPROACH TO BODY SIZE FLUCTUATIONS IN QUATERNARY CONTINENTAL MAMMALS: THE CASE OF HIPPOPOTAMUSES FROM WESTERN EUROPE

Several paleoenvironmental analyses show that community change over geological time is driven by ecological factors which, in turn, are regulated by climate. To most effectively examine the origin of

Bergmann's rule in shrews: geographical variation of body size in Palearctic Sorex species

Shrews followed the converse to Bergmann’s rule, and it is hypothesized that part of their body size variation along the west-east axis may be explained by character displacement.

Selection-driven adaptation to the extreme Antarctic environment in the Emperor penguin

The results show that extreme cold adaptation in the Emperor penguin largely involved unique genetic options which, however, affect metabolic and physiological traits common to other cold-adapted homeotherms.

Spatial variation in avian bill size is associated with humidity in summer among Australian passerines

BackgroundClimate imposes multiple selection pressures on animal morphology. Allen’s Rule proposes that geographic variation in the appendage size of endotherms, relative to body size, is linked to
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 50 REFERENCES

Adaptation to cold in arctic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation, and basal metabolic rate.

There is no evidence of adaptive low body temperature in arctic mammals and birds, or highBody temperature in tropical mammals andbirds.

Thermal Adjustment and Respiratory Exchange in Monotremes and Marsupials. A Study in the Development of Homaeothermism

Echidna is the lowest in the scale of warm-blooded animals and its attempts at homothermism fail to the extent of 10° when the environment varies from 5° to 35° C.

Heat regulation in some arctic and tropical mammals and birds.

A series of arctic and tropical mammals and birds at Point Barrow, Alaska (lat. 71° N.) and in Panama (lat. 9° N.) was subjected to various air temperatures in a respiration chamber where the heat

Physiological adaptation to cold of peripheral nerve in the leg of the herring gull (Larus argentatus).

Conduction in excised superficial peroneal nerves of herring gulls (Lams argentatus) as a function of temperature is investigated, finding that the functional resistance to cold in the nerve from the metatarsus is the result of some process of adaptation which occurs during exposure to low temperatures.

SECRETION OF GASES AGAINST HIGH PRESSURES IN THE SWIMBLADDER OF DEEP SEA FISHES II. THE RETE MIRABILE

The anatomical arrangement of the glandular structure and the rete is suggestive of a cellular secretion of oxygen rather than of a mechanism that splits off oxygen in the blood, and makes it clear that the limiting equilibrium pressure in the swimbladder could be extremely high.

Body insulation of some arctic and tropical mammals and birds.

Insulation measurements on raw skins from 16 arctic and 16 tropical mammals are given. There is, as would be expected, a good correlation between the thickness of the fur and the insulation. The

The Material Basis of Evolution

THE “Origin of Single Characters as Observed in Fossil and Living Animals” forms the subject of an illuminating essay in the American Naturalist for April, by Prof. H. F. Osborn. Since it contains

THE REGULATION OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE SEAL DURING DIVING

The arterial blood pressure and various aspects of the circulation during the bradycardia of diving in common harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, were observed during the summers of 1940 and 1941.

Evolution: The Modern Synthesis

This definitive edition brings one of the most important and successful scientific books of the twentieth century back into print and includes the entire text of the 1942 edition, Huxley's introduction to the 1963 second edition (which demonstrates his continuing command of the field), and the introduction tothe 1974 third edition, written by nine experts from different areas of evolutionary biology.

Observations on the gross and microscopic anatomy of the sloths (Bradypus griseus griseus Gray and Choloepus hoffmanni Peters)

In this study observations are reported upon the morphological differences between the three‐toed and two‐toed forms of sloths, as well as a comparison made of some aspects between the sloths and the