EVOLUTION AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE WOODY HAWAIIAN VIOLETS (VIOLA, VIOLACEAE): ARCTIC ORIGINS, HERBACEOUS ANCESTRY AND BIRD DISPERSAL

@article{Ballard2000EVOLUTIONAB,
  title={EVOLUTION AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE WOODY HAWAIIAN VIOLETS (VIOLA, VIOLACEAE): ARCTIC ORIGINS, HERBACEOUS ANCESTRY AND BIRD DISPERSAL},
  author={Harvey E. Ballard and Kenneth J Sytsma},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={2000},
  volume={54}
}
Specialists studying the genus Viola have consistently allied the Hawaiian violets comprising section Nosphinium--most of which are subshrubs or treelets--with putatively primitive subshrubs in certain South American violet groups. [...] Key Result A survey of phylogenetic relationships among infrageneric groups of Viola worldwide using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a dramatically different biogeographic origin for the Hawaiian violets: A monophyletic Hawaiian clade was…Expand
Evolutionary relationships, interisland biogeography, and molecular evolution in the Hawaiian violets (Viola: Violaceae).
TLDR
A phylogenetic study using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences from specimens of each species suggested that ecologically analogous taxa have undergone parallel evolution in leaf morphology and habit, and this parallel evolution correlates with shifts to specialized habitats. Expand
E VOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS, INTERISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY, AND MOLECULAR EVOLUTION IN THE HAWAIIAN VIOLETS ( VIOLA : VIOLACEAE) 1
TLDR
A phylogenetic study using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences from specimens of each species found that ecologically analogous taxa have undergone parallel evolution in leaf morphology and habit, and showed that woody and herbaceous sister species possess equal molecular evolution rates. Expand
Origin of the Hawaiian endemic mints within North American Stachys (Lamiaceae).
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It is hypothesize that the Hawaiian mints may be polyploid hybrids whose reticulate genomes predate the Hawaiian dispersal event and are derived from Stachys lineages with flowers exhibiting insect- vs. bird-pollination characteristics. Expand
The origin and number of introductions of the Hawaiian endemic Silene species (Caryophyllaceae).
TLDR
The results suggest an American origin for the Hawaiian endemics because that would require only a single trans-ocean dispersal and support a striking morphological radiation and evolution of woodiness from a single introduction to the archipelago. Expand
Reconstructing ancestral patterns of colonization and dispersal in the Hawaiian understory tree genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae): a comparison of parsimony and likelihood approaches.
TLDR
Systematic and biogeographical relationships within the Hawaiian clade of the pantropical understory shrub genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae) were investigated using phylogenetic analysis of 18S-26S ribosomal DNA internal (ITS) and external (ETS) transcribed spacers, suggesting monophyletic relationships and extremely rapid radiation in the lineage. Expand
Establishing the phylogenetic origin, history, and age of the narrow endemic Viola guadalupensis (Violaceae).
TLDR
Phylogenetic reconstructions showed that Viola guadalupensis originated through hybridization between unidentified members of subsection Canadenses (paternal parent) and subsection Nuttallianae (maternal parent), suggesting the species evolved after the Guadalupe Mountains formed 12-13 Ma. Expand
Interisland Range Expansion of Viola lanaiensis (Violaceae: Malpighiales), an Endangered Hawaiian Violet
TLDR
Analysis of leaf variables suggests that the Maui population is morphologically indistinguishable from V. lanaiensis, and due to similarities in morphology and close genetic relationships, this population is classifying as a new interisland population of V. Lanaiensis. Expand
Molecular phylogeny and adaptive radiation of the endemic Hawaiian Plantago species (Plantaginaceae).
TLDR
Phylogenetic analysis provided strong evidence for the monophyly of Hawaiian Plantago, suggesting that the lineage arose from a single long-distance dispersal event and inconsistencies between nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies suggest a history of hybridization. Expand
Repeated range expansion and niche shift in a volcanic hotspot archipelago: Radiation of C4 Hawaiian Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae)
TLDR
The biogeographic history of Hawaiian Euphorbia supports a progression rule with within‐island shifts from open to closed vegetation, and the reticulate relationships within this radiation are investigated. Expand
Intraspecific variation in Viola suavis in Europe: parallel evolution of white-flowered morphotypes.
TLDR
These results suggest that intraspecific variation in V. suavis has been largely shaped by population isolations during the last glaciation and subsequent recolonizations, although cultivation and vegetative spread by humans have affected the present picture as well. Expand
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