# ESTIMATING SITE OCCUPANCY, COLONIZATION, AND LOCAL EXTINCTION WHEN A SPECIES IS DETECTED IMPERFECTLY

@article{MacKenzie2003ESTIMATINGSO, title={ESTIMATING SITE OCCUPANCY, COLONIZATION, AND LOCAL EXTINCTION WHEN A SPECIES IS DETECTED IMPERFECTLY}, author={Darryl I MacKenzie and James D. Nichols and James E Hines and Melinda G. Knutson and Alan B. Franklin}, journal={Ecology}, year={2003}, volume={84}, pages={2200-2207} }

Few species are likely to be so evident that they will always be detected when present. Failing to allow for the possibility that a target species was present, but undetected, at a site will lead to biased estimates of site occupancy, colonization, and local extinction probabilities. These population vital rates are often of interest in long-term monitoring programs and metapopulation studies. We present a model that enables direct estimation of these parameters when the probability of…

## 1,492 Citations

### Comparing estimates of population change from occupancy and mark–recapture models for a territorial species

- Environmental Science
- 2016

Monitoring studies often use marked animals to estimate population abundance at small spatial scales. However, at smaller scales, occupancy sampling, which uses detection/nondetection data, may be…

### Estimating species' absence, colonization and local extinction in patchy landscapes: an application of occupancy models with rodents

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The distribution of two rodents Myodes glareolus and Mus musculus domesticus in a fragmented landscape in central Italy is analysed pointing out how it is possible to identify true absences, non-detections, extinctions/colonizations and determine seasonal values of detection probability.

### Population Abundance Estimation Using Repeated Presence-Absence Observations : With or Without the Robust Design

- Environmental Science
- 2011

When animal monitoring efforts are concerned with estimating the total abundance of a species that is imperfectly detected, they typically collect at minimum point counts of the number of individuals…

### Climate and the range dynamics of species with imperfect detection

- Environmental ScienceBiology Letters
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Recently developed occupancy models are drawn attention to, which can be used to examine colonization and local extinction or changes in occupancy over time, and the recent range expansion of hadeda ibises in South African protected areas is examined.

### Small sample bias in dynamic occupancy models

- Mathematics
- 2013

Occupancy models may be used to estimate the probability that a randomly selected site in an area of interest is occupied by a species (c), given imperfect detection (p). This method can be extended,…

### Occupancy as a surrogate for abundance estimation

- Environmental Science
- 2004

Some recent modelling developments that permit unbiased estimation of the proportion of area occupied, colonization and local extinction probabilities are reviewed and it is described how these models could be extended to incorporate information from marked individuals, which would enable finer questions of population dynamics to be addressed.

### How biased are estimates of extinction probability in revisitation studies?

- Environmental Science
- 2006

1 Extinction is a fundamental topic for population ecology and especially for conservation and metapopulation biology. Most empirical studies on extinction resurvey historically occupied sites and…

### Improving occupancy estimation when two types of observational error occur: non-detection and species misidentification.

- Environmental ScienceEcology
- 2011

It is shown that models that account for possible misidentification have greater support and can yield substantially different occupancy estimates than those that do not and can be used to improve estimates of occupancy for study designs where a subset of detections is of a type or method for which false positives can be assumed to not occur.

### Relaxing the closure assumption in occupancy models: staggered arrival and departure times.

- Environmental ScienceEcology
- 2013

This model relaxes the closure assumption within a season by permitting staggered entry and exit times for the species of interest at each site, and permits comparison of phenology across sites, species, or years, by modeling variation in arrival or departure probabilities.

### Cryptic wide‐ranging movements lead to upwardly biased occupancy in a territorial species

- Environmental ScienceJournal of Applied Ecology
- 2018

1. Occupancy modelling is useful for inferring population status and dynamics when occupancy reflects the presence of established individuals or populations, such as residents detected at breeding…

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