author={Hyun Jung Koo and Byung Mu Lee},
  journal={Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A},
  pages={1901 - 1914}
  • H. Koo, B. Lee
  • Published 1 December 2004
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A
Some phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and their metabolites are suspected of producing teratogenic or endocrine-disrupting effects. To predict possible human exposure to phthalates in cosmetics, the levels of DEHP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), DBP, and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 102 branded hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, and nail polishes. DBP was detected in 19 of the 21 nail… 

Human monitoring of phthalates and risk assessment.

  • H. KooB. Lee
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A
  • 2005
The data suggest that Koreans (women and children) were exposed to significant levels of phthalate, which should be reduced to as low a level as technologically feasible to protect Koreans from the exposure to toxic phthalates.

Risk assessment of phthalates in pharmaceuticals

The low HI values suggest that phthalate contamination in pharmaceuticals may not pose an apparent significant risk to humans, but the sources of phthalates present in pharmaceutical products still needs to be investigated and verified through on-site inspections in manufacturing processes in order to minimize human exposure.

A survey of phthalate esters in consumer cosmetic products.

Thirty-one of the 60 adult-use and baby-care cosmetic products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester and spiked recoveries in antiperspirant and nail color ranged from 88% to 104%.

Phthalate Concentrations in Personal Care Products and the Cumulative Exposure to Female Adults and Infants in Shanghai

The level of phthalate in PCP from Shanghai retail markets posed no apparent cumulative risk to adult females and infants in China, indicating no cumulative reproductive risks to these populations.

A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.

PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP.

Screening of phthalate esters in 47 branded perfumes

The results of this study are alarming and definitely need to be brought to the attention of the public and health regulators.

Phthalates - widespread occurrence and the effect on male gametes. Part 1. General characteristics, sources and human exposure.

The occurence of individual phthalates in the environment (water, air) and in different products and the results of studies regarding to concentration of phthalate in human tissues and excretions are described.

Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach.

An overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data is presented, and recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted.

An Exposure Assessment of DI-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) and DI-n-Butyl Phthalate (DBP) in Human Semen

  • S. HanH. Lee B. Lee
  • Medicine, Chemistry
    Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A
  • 2009
The concentration of MEHP (the metabolite of DEHP) was highest, and the concentrations of the metabolites including MEHP, MBP, and PA were higher than actual concentrations of parent DEHP and DBP.



Dermal absorption of phthalate diesters in rats.

Levels of seven urinary phthalate metabolites in a human reference population.

It is strongly suggested that health-risk assessments for phthalate exposure in humans should include diethyl, dibutyl, and benzyl butyl phthalates.

In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and duration of human pregnancy.

It is confirmed that human exposure to DEHP can begin in utero and suggest that phthalate exposure is significantly associated with a shorter pregnancy duration.

Toxicological profile of diethyl phthalate: a vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients.

  • A. Api
  • Environmental Science
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2001

Potential Hazards of Exposure to Di-(2-Ethylhexyl)-Phthalate in Babies

If DEHP toxicity in humans were to be confirmed, it would be advisable in the future to replace current PVC plasticizers, especially if they come into contact with babies, with better-quality materials.

In vitro absorption of some o-phthalate diesters through human and rat skin.

Although differences were noted between species, the absolute rates of absorption measured indicate that the phthalate esters are slowly absorbed through both human and rat skin.

Prenatal exposures to phthalates among women in New York City and Krakow, Poland.

The results demonstrate considerable phthalate exposures during pregnancy among women in these two cohorts and indicate that inhalation is an important route of exposure.

Health risks posed by use of Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices: a critical review.

The substitution of other materials for PVC would have an added worker and community health benefit of reducing population exposures to DEHP, reducing the creation of dioxin from PVC production and disposal, and reducing risks from vinyl chloride monomer exposure.

Plasticizers, antioxidants, and other contaminants found in air delivered by PVC tubing used in respiratory therapy.

These levels are high enough to cause some concern about exposure for patients who use oxygen on a long-term basis, those sensitive or allergic to these species, or those with asthma.

Mechanisms of phthalate ester toxicity in the female reproductive system.

A model for the ovarian action of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which acts through a receptor-mediated signaling pathway to suppress estradiol production in the ovary, leading to anovulation is proposed.