ERβ: Identification and characterization of a novel human estrogen receptor

@article{Mosselman1996ERIA,
  title={ER$\beta$: Identification and characterization of a novel human estrogen receptor},
  author={Sietse Mosselman and Jan Polman and Rein Dijkema},
  journal={FEBS Letters},
  year={1996},
  volume={392}
}
Identification of Estrogen Receptor β2, A Functional Variant of Estrogen Receptor β Expressed in Normal Rat Tissues.
TLDR
It is demonstrated by semiquantitative RT-PCR and RNase protection that ERβ2 mRNA was expressed at levels equal to those of the previously published ERβ (ERβ1) in ovary, prostate, pituitary, and muscle.
ERα36--Another piece of the estrogen puzzle.
Independent Downstream Gene Expression Profiles in the Presence of Estrogen Receptor α or β1
TLDR
Responses to estrogen in a rat embryonic fibroblast cell line model are examined, supporting a model in which ERα and ERβ regulate unique subsets of downstream genes within a given cell type.
Estrogen receptor β: an overview and update
TLDR
ERα and ERβ have different transcriptional activities in certain ligand, cell-type, and promoter contexts, which may help to explain some of the major differences in their tissue-specific biological actions.
Functional analysis of a novel estrogen receptor-beta isoform.
TLDR
In cotransfection experiments with expression plasmids for ERalpha, ERbeta1, and ERbeta2 and an estrogen-responsive element-containing luciferase reporter, the dose response of ER beta1 to E2 was similar to that of ERalpha although the maximal stimulation was approximately 50%.
In vitro and in vivo molecular imaging of estrogen receptor α and β homo- and heterodimerization: exploration of new modes of receptor regulation.
TLDR
The results from this study demonstrate the value of the split luciferase-based complementation system for studying ER-subtype interactions in cells and for evaluating them in living animals by noninvasive imaging.
Structure of the Estrogen Receptor Dimerization Domain Bound to an Antiestrogenic Phosphotyrosyl Peptide
TLDR
It is found that the N-terminal region of ER alpha, which contains transactivation function-1, is critical for the synergistic response induced by ERalpha, and the underlying mechanism for the low transactivity of ER beta is explained.
Ligand-Induced Conformational Changes in Estrogen Receptors-α and -β
TLDR
This work has shown that transgenic mice that do not express either ERα or ERβ display distinct phenotypes, and that the biology of ERα and ERβ are likely to be quite different based on their tissue distribution.
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References

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TLDR
Functional differences between these clinically important antiestrogens are revealed and suggest that the distinct biologies manifest by these compounds in vivo relate to their ability to differentially regulate ER function.
Sequence and expression of human estrogen receptor complementary DNA.
TLDR
A complementary DNA clone containing the entire translated portion of the messenger RNA for the estrogen receptor from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was sequenced and then expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells to give a functional protein, which suggests that steroid receptor genes and the avian erythroblastosis viral oncogene are derived from a common primordial gene.
Identification of a conserved region required for hormone dependent transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors.
TLDR
It is proposed that the conserved region in the C‐terminus of the hormone binding domain between residues 538 and 552 in the mouse oestrogen receptor may be essential for ligand dependent transcriptional activation by other members of the nuclear receptor family.
Identification of a new class of steroid hormone receptors
TLDR
Using the DNA-binding domain of the human oestrogen receptor cDNA as a hybridization probe, two cDNA clones encoding polypeptides with structural features suggestive of cryptic steroid hormone receptors which could participate in a new hormone response system are isolated.
Activation of the Estrogen Receptor Through Phosphorylation by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase
TLDR
The phosphorylation of the human estrogen receptor (ER) serine residue at position 118 is required for full activity of the ER activation function 1 (AF-1), which is modulated by the phosphorylated Ser118 through the Ras-MAPK cascade of the growth factor signaling pathways.
Human oestrogen receptor cDNA: sequence, expression and homology to v-erb-A
TLDR
Cloned and sequenced the complete complementary DNA of the oestrogen receptor (ER) present in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and found extensive homology between the ER and the erb-A protein of the oncogenic avian erythroblastosis virus.
Thyroid hormone regulates the oxytocin gene.
Repression of the interleukin-6 promoter by estrogen receptor is mediated by NF-kappa B and C/EBP beta
TLDR
It is shown here that NF-kappa B and C/EBP beta are important regulators of IL- 6 gene expression in human osteoblasts and that the IL-6 promoter is inhibited by estrogen in the absence of a functional estrogen receptor (ER) binding site.
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