Pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) prevents copper-mediated in vitro free radical formation
The search for effective iron chelating agents was primarily driven by the need to treat iron-loading refractory anemias such as beta-thalassemia major. However, there is a potential for therapeutic use of iron chelators in non-iron overload conditions. Iron can, under appropriate conditions, catalyze the production of toxic oxygen radicals which have been implicated in numerous pathologies and, hence, iron chelators may be useful as inhibitors of free radical-mediated tissue damage. We have developed the orally effective iron chelator pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) and demonstrated that it inhibits iron-mediated oxyradical formation and their effects (e.g. 2-deoxyribose oxidative degradation, lipid peroxidation and plasmid DNA breaks). In this study we further characterized the mechanism of the antioxidant action of PIH and some of its analogs against *OH formation from the Fenton reaction. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap for *OH we showed that PIH and salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) inhibited Fe(II)-dependent production of *OH from H2O2. Moreover, PIH protected 2-deoxyribose against oxidative degradation induced by Fe(II) and H2O2. The protective effect of PIH against both DMPO hydroxylation and 2-deoxyribose degradation was inversely proportional to Fe(II) concentration. However, PIH did not change the primary products of the Fenton reaction as indicated by EPR experiments on *OH-mediated ethanol radical formation. Furthermore, PIH dramatically enhanced the rate of Fe(II) oxidation to Fe(III) in the presence of oxygen, suggesting that PIH decreases the concentration of Fe(II) available for the Fenton reaction. These results suggest that PIH and SIH deserve further investigation as inhibitors of free-radical mediated tissue damage.