author={Alessia Gualandris and David Merritt},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
[Abridged] Recent numerical relativity simulations have shown that the emission of gravitational waves during the merger of two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) delivers a kick to the final hole, with a magnitude as large as 4000 km/s. We study the motion of SMBHs ejected from galaxy cores by such kicks and the effects on the stellar distribution using high-accuracy direct N-body simulations. Following the kick, the motion of the SMBH exhibits three distinct phases. (1) The SMBH oscillates with… 
Monsters on the Move: Gravitational Recoil of Supermassive Black Holes in Nearby Elliptical Galaxies
It has long been assumed that Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) reside at the centers of their host galaxies, but is this really true? A galaxy merger is expected to lead to the formation of a
Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes: a search in the Nearby Universe
The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can
Simulations of Recoiling Massive Black Holes in the Via Lactea Halo
The coalescence of a massive black hole (MBH) binary leads to the gravitational-wave recoil of the system and its ejection from the galaxy core. We have carried out N-body simulations of the motion
Interaction of Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes with Stars in Galactic Nuclei
Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are the products of frequent galaxy mergers. The coalescence of the SMBHBs is a distinct source of gravitational wave (GW) radiation. The detections of the
The influence of Massive Black Hole Binaries on the Morphology of Merger Remnants
Massive black hole (MBH) binaries, formed as a result of galaxy mergers, are expected to harden by dynamical friction and three-body stellar scatterings, until emission of gravitational waves (GWs)
Electromagnetic Signatures of Recoiling Black Holes
  • S. Komossa
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • 2009
Abstract Recent numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) can receive kick velocities up to several thousands of kilometers per second due to
Effects of gravitational-wave recoil on the dynamics and growth of supermassive black holes
Simulations of binary black hole mergers indicate that asymmetrical gravitational wave (GW) emission can cause black holes to recoil at speeds up to thousands of km s −1 . These GW recoil events can
Dynamical Friction around Supermassive Black Holes
The density of stars in galactic bulges is often observed to be flat or slowly rising inside the influence radius of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). Attributing the dynamical friction force to
Imprints of recoiling massive black holes on the hot gas of early-type galaxies
Anisotropic gravitational radiation from a coalescing black hole (BH) binary is known to impart recoil velocities of up to ∼1000 km s -1 to the remnant BH. In this context, we study the motion of a
Recoiling Black Holes: Electromagnetic Signatures, Candidates, and Astrophysical Implications
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) may not always reside right at the centers of their host galaxies. This is a prediction of numerical relativity simulations, which imply that the newly formed single


Spin, accretion, and the cosmological growth of supermassive black holes
If supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are the energy sources that power quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), then QSO SDSS 1148+5251, the quasar with the highest redshift (zQSO = 6.43), hosts an
Formation of Galactic Nuclei
We investigate a model in which galactic nuclei form via the coalescence of preexisting stellar systems containing supermassive black holes. Merger simulations are carried out using N-body algorithms
Secular bar formation in galaxies with a significant amount of dark matter
Using high resolution N-body simulations of stellar disks embedded in cosmologically motivated dark matter halos, we study the evolution of bars and the transfer of angular momentum between halos and
Mass Deficits, Stalling Radii, and the Merger Histories of Elliptical Galaxies
A binary supermassive black hole leaves an imprint on a galactic nucleus in the form of a "mass deficit," a decrease in the mass of the nucleus due to ejection of stars by the binary. The magnitude
The Distribution of Recoil Velocities from Merging Black Holes
We calculate the linear momentum flux from merging black holes (BHs) with arbitrary masses and spin orientations, using the effective-one-body (EOB) model. This model includes an analytic description
Core Formation in Galactic Nuclei due to Recoiling Black Holes
Anisotropic gravitational radiation from a coalescing black hole binary can impart a recoil velocity of up to several hundred kilometers per second to the remnant black hole. We examine the effects
Gravitational waves from the coalescence of binary black holes carry away linear momentum, causing center of mass recoil. This "radiation rocket" effect has important implications for systems with
Getting a Kick Out of Numerical Relativity
Recent developments in numerical relativity have made it possible to reliably follow the coalescence of two black holes from near the innermost stable circular orbit to final ringdown. This opens up
Core Depletion from Coalescing Supermassive Black Holes
New measurements of the stellar-mass deficits at the centers of luminous elliptical galaxies are presented. These were derived considering the following observational facts. First, "core" galaxies,
Recoiling Black Holes in Quasars
Recent simulations of merging black holes with spin give recoil velocities from gravitational radiation up to several thousand kilometers per second. A recoiling supermassive black hole can retain