EFFECTS OF MYCOPLASMAL UPPER-RESPIRATORY-TRACT DISEASE ON MOVEMENT AND THERMOREGULATORY BEHAVIOR OF GOPHER TORTOISES (GOPHERUS POLYPHEMUS) IN GEORGIA, USA

@inproceedings{McGuire2014EFFECTSOM,
  title={EFFECTS OF MYCOPLASMAL UPPER-RESPIRATORY-TRACT DISEASE ON MOVEMENT AND THERMOREGULATORY BEHAVIOR OF GOPHER TORTOISES (GOPHERUS POLYPHEMUS) IN GEORGIA, USA},
  author={Jessica L. McGuire and Lora L. Smith and Craig Guyer and Michael J. Yabsley},
  booktitle={Journal of wildlife diseases},
  year={2014}
}
Abstract From 2011–12, we studied a gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) population with a historically high prevalence of antibodies to Mycoplasma agassizii to assess long-term effects of upper-respiratory-tract disease (URTD) on tortoise behavior. We radiotracked 30 adult tortoises (16 males, 14 females) from a long-term study site with the use of mark–recapture methods to determine site fidelity and to compare home-range size to that of a study in 1997. An additional 10 tortoises (six males… 

Epidemiological Investigation of a Mortality Event in a Translocated Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) Population in Northwest Florida

It is believed that the stress associated with mixing tortoises from different populations and at higher densities during translocation impacted an individual tortoise's ability to obtain or absorb adequate nutrients from foraging, ultimately leading to a wasting condition consistent with starvation.

Distance to human populations influences epidemiology of respiratory disease in desert tortoises

The relationship between distance to human-populated census blocks and tortoises that are test-positive for M. agassizii and potentially M. testudineum may be related to release or escape of captive Tortoise, and the findings have application to other species of chelonians where both domestic captive and wild populations exist.

Health assessment of wild speckled dwarf tortoises, CHERSOBIUS SIGNATUS

The baseline data from clinically healthy individuals will help future studies to interpret prevalences of microorganisms in speckled dwarf tortoise populations and did not appear immediately threatened by current parasite presence.

Clinical Mycoplasma sp. Infections in Free-living Three-toed Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina triunguis) in Missouri, USA

Abstract Mycoplasma species, which can cause upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), are significant pathogens of birds, mammals, fish, and reptiles. Mycoplasmosis is of high concern for chelonian

More than Fever: Thermoregulatory Responses to Immunological Stimulation and Consequences of Thermoregulatory Strategy on Innate Immunity in Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

In nonstimulated animals, thermoregulatory strategy had a strong effect on innate immunity, which demonstrated that individuals have the ability to facultatively adjust immune function when infection burden is low; this relationship was not present in LPS-injected animals, which suggested that animals stimulated with LPS maximize bactericidal ability independently of temperature.

Mass mortality of eastern box turtles with upper respiratory disease following atypical cold weather.

There was a significant negative effect of daily environmental temperature deviation from the 3 mo mean on survival, suggesting that rapid decreases in environmental temperature were correlated with mortality.

Seasonal Acclimation of Constitutive Immunity in Gopher Tortoises Gopherus polyphemus

Support is found for the seasonal acclimation hypothesis in Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise), which indicated that natural seasonal variation causes differences in baseline immune function across seasonal Acclimation states, and changes in CORT occurred independently of the immunological adjustments.

Thermal Ecology of Spotted Turtles (Clemmys guttata) in Two Southern Populations

In general, Spotted Turtles at the southern end of their range appear to spend a majority of their time conforming to environmental temperatures that often fall within the preferred range for the species.

High-Level Inactivity Despite Favorable Environmental Conditions in the Rock-Dwelling Dwarf Tortoise Chersobius boulengeri

Abstract In arid regions with summer rainfall, herbivorous reptiles are able to acquire water and fresh food in the presence of high environmental temperatures that can promote ectotherm activity.

Drivers of burrow use patterns in the Deserttortoise, Gopherus agassizii : Insights towardssocial structure

1. For several species, refuges (such as burrows, dens, roosts, nests) are an essential resource to obtain protection from predators and extreme environmental conditions. Refuges also serve as focal

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EFFECTS OF MYCOPLASMAL UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE ON MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY OF GOPHER TORTOISES IN NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA

Mycoplasmal URTD is believed to be a chronic disease with high morbidity but low mortality, and follow-up studies are needed to detect long-term effects.

SURVEILLANCE FOR UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE AND MYCOPLASMA IN FREE-RANGING GOPHER TORTOISES (GOPHERUS POLYPHEMUS) IN GEORGIA, USA

Data indicate that both M. agassizii and M. testudineum are present in Georgia populations of gopher tortoises and that clinical disease is apparent in populations where both pathogens are present, and additional research is needed to better understand the role of these two pathogens.

Upper respiratory tract disease, force of infection, and effects on survival of gopher tortoises.

The results provide the first quantitative evidence that the rate of transmission of M. agassizii is directly related to the seroprevalence of the population and could adversely influence the population dynamics and persistence of this late- maturing, long-lived species.

Conservation Strategies and Emergent Diseases: The Case of Upper Respiratory Tract Disease in the Gopher Tortoise

The simplistic conservation response that gopher tortoise populations have taken to the emergence of URTD may need to be reconsidered and that maintaining or creating conditions necessary to minimize the chance of re-emergence of U RTD is important.

Swine Flu or 1918 Pandemic? Upper Respiratory Tract Disease and the Sudden Mortality of Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) on a Protected Habitat in Florida

It is suggested that URTD is not benign but may instead have a substantial impact on tortoise populations, and the “protected lands paradigm” that many resource managers rely on to conserve tortoises may be violated, suggesting that more active management measures are needed.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLINICAL SIGNS OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE AND ANTIBODIES TO MYCOPLASMA AGASSIZII IN DESERT TORTOISES FROM NEVADA

Serologic testing for M. agassizii antibodies supported clinical signs as useful indicators of URTD, but it also detected potential subclinical infection in 34 (34%) of 99 animals without clinical signs.

Upper Respiratory Tract Disease in the Gopher Tortoise Is Caused by Mycoplasma agassizii

It is concluded that M. agassizii is an etiologic agent of URTD in the gopher tortoise and Histological lesions were compatible with those observed in tortoises with natural infections.

PATHOLOGY OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE OF GOPHER TORTOISES IN FLORIDA

Histologic evaluation of the upper respiratory tract indicated the presence of mild to severe inflammatory, hyperplastic, or dysplastic changes in 14 URTD-positive tortoises, and it is concluded that subclinical U RTD can occur in gopher tortoise.

CHRONIC UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE OF FREE-RANGING DESERT TORTOISES (XEROBATES AGASSIZII)

While no significant differences were found for concentrations of lead, copper, cadmium, and selenium, the livers of ill tortoises had higher concentrations of mercury and iron, and Lesions were found consistently in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of ill Tortoise.