EFFECTS OF BIODIVERSITY ON ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING: A CONSENSUS OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE

@article{Hooper2005EFFECTSOB,
  title={EFFECTS OF BIODIVERSITY ON ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING: A CONSENSUS OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE},
  author={David U Hooper and F. Stuart Chapin and John J Ewel and Andy Hector and Pablo Inchausti and Sandra Lavorel and John H. Lawton and David M. Lodge and Michel Loreau and Shahid Naeem and Bernhard Schmid and Heikki Set{\"a}l{\"a} and Amy J. Symstad and John Vandermeer and David A. Wardle},
  journal={Ecological Monographs},
  year={2005},
  volume={75},
  pages={3-35}
}
Humans are altering the composition of biological communities through a variety of activities that increase rates of species invasions and species extinctions, at all scales, from local to global. These changes in components of the Earth's biodiversity cause concern for ethical and aesthetic reasons, but they also have a strong potential to alter ecosystem properties and the goods and services they provide to humanity. Ecological experiments, observations, and theoretical developments show that… 

Figures from this paper

The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems.
TLDR
Several new questions must now be addressed if this field is going to evolve into a predictive science that can help conserve and manage ecological processes in ecosystems, including questions about how primary producer diversity influences the efficiency of resource use and biomass production in ecosystems.
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning : Basic Principles
Since the mid 1990s, ecologists have intensified their efforts to describe and quantify the effects that biodiversity can exert on the various processes within ecosystems. Both theoretical and
Effects of Subordinate Plant Species in Plant and Soil Community Structure and Ecosystem Functioning
TLDR
The results of the different experiments conducted in this thesis highlight the importance of cattle activity and AMF on the persistence of subordinate plant species in semi-natural grasslands and their role in grassland ecosystems.
Realistic changes in seaweed biodiversity affect multiple ecosystem functions on a rocky shore.
TLDR
The results suggest that in realistic assemblages of species, some functions may be maximized at low levels of species richness, and it is not only diversity, per se, that is important for sustaining multiple ecosystem functions, but also the range of diversity values in an ecosystem.
How biodiversity affects ecosystem processes: implications for ecological revolutions and benthic ecosystem function
TLDR
This study identifies significant effects of species richness that reflect species-specific impacts on particle reworking that, in turn, lead to elevated lev- els of nutrient generation and emphasises the need for caution when extrapolating from assumed knowledge of organism traits to how changes in species composition associated with ecological crises may impact ecosystem function.
Ecosystem Consequences of Biological Invasions
Exotic species affect the biogeochemical pools and fluxes of materials and energy, thereby altering the fundamental structure and function of their ecosystems. Rapidly accumulating evidence from many
Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems
TLDR
A formal meta-analysis of studies that have experimentally manipulated species diversity to examine how it affects the functioning of numerous trophic groups in multiple types of ecosystem suggests that the average effect of decreasing species richness is to decrease the abundance or biomass of the focal Trophic group, leading to less complete depletion of resources used by that group.
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in food webs
Recent theoretical and experimental work provides clear evidence that biodiversity loss can have profound impacts on functioning of natural and managed ecosystems and the ability of ecosystems to
Land-use impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning of complex multitrophic communities
TLDR
This thesis aimed to achieve a conceptual advance in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research within the context of global environmental change by investigating responses of complex multitrophic communities to land-use change and the resulting consequences for ecosystem functioning.
Marine biodiversity–ecosystem functions under uncertain environmental futures
  • M. Bulling, N. Hicks, +4 authors M. Solan
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2010
TLDR
This work examines the roles of two important climate change variables, temperature and concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, on the relationship between invertebrate species richness and nutrient release in a model benthic estuarine system and finds significant interactions between the climate variables.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 670 REFERENCES
Linking species diversity to the functioning of ecosystems: on the importance of environmental context
TLDR
The results of a simple model suggest there may be no single, generalizable relationship between species diversity and the productivity of an ecosystem because the relative contributions of species to productivity change with environmental context.
Consistent patterns and the idiosyncratic effects of biodiversity in marine ecosystems
TLDR
Variable diversity effects for species representative of marine coastal systems at both global and regional scales are demonstrated and evidence for an increase in complementary resource use as diversity increases and strong evidence for diversity effects in naturally assembled communities at a regional scale is shown.
Declining biodiversity can alter the performance of ecosystems
COMMUNITIES of species and their associated biological, chemical and physical processes, collectively known as ecosystems, drive the Earth's biogeochemical processes1,2. Currently most ecosystems are
Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: a mechanistic model.
  • M. Loreau
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
TLDR
A mechanistic model of a spatially structured ecosystem in which plants compete for a limiting soil nutrient shows that plant species richness does not necessarily enhance ecosystem processes, but it identifies two types of factors that could generate such an effect: complementarity among species in the space they occupy below ground and positive correlation between mean resource-use intensity and diversity.
The influence of species diversity on ecosystem productivity: how, where, and why?
TLDR
A set of hypotheses is offered that describe how diversity might influence productivity in plant communities based on three well-known mechanisms: complementarity, facilitation, and the sampling effect, and why productivity per se is a relevant management concern in non-agricultural systems once relationships among diversity, productivity, andThe qualities of the surrounding environment are considered.
Trophic‐dynamic considerations in relating species diversity to ecosystem resilience
  • Kris H. Johnson
  • Biology, Medicine
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2000
TLDR
The theory presented here introduces explanation of how increasing diversity can have a negative influence on ecosystem sustainability by altering the environment for biotic interactions and there by changing functional compensability among biota under particular conditions.
Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: recent theoretical advances
TLDR
Recent theoretical developments in the area of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning suggest that linking community and ecosystem ecology is a fruitful avenue, which paves the way for a new ecological synthesis.
Principles of Ecosystem Sustainability
TLDR
A new framework for defining the conditions that sustain natural ecosystems is presented and principles to apply to sustainability of managed ecosystems are applied.
HOMEOSTASIS AND COMPENSATION: THE ROLE OF SPECIES AND RESOURCES IN ECOSYSTEM STABILITY
TLDR
It is predicted that ecosystem-level properties, such as species richness, total population, biomass, and energy use, will exhibit less variability in response to environmental change than will species composition, and negative covariances in the rodent community are detected, confirming the presence of compensatory dynamics.
Food-web constraints on biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships
  • É. Thébault, M. Loreau
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2003
TLDR
It is shown that plant biomass does not always increase with plant diversity and that changes in biodiversity can lead to complex if predictable changes in ecosystem processes, and that food-web structure can profoundly influence ecosystem properties.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...