EDA for HLM: Visualization when Probabilistic Inference Fails

@article{Bowers2005EDAFH,
  title={EDA for HLM: Visualization when Probabilistic Inference Fails},
  author={Jake Bowers and Katherine W. Drake},
  journal={Political Analysis},
  year={2005},
  volume={13},
  pages={301 - 326}
}
Nearly all hierarchical linear models presented to political science audiences are estimated using maximum likelihood under a repeated sampling interpretation of the results of hypothesis tests. Maximum likelihood estimators have excellent asymptotic properties but less than ideal small sample properties. Multilevel models common in political science have relatively large samples of units like individuals nested within relatively small samples of units like countries. Often these level-2… Expand
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