E-Cigarette use among children and young people: the need for regulation

@article{Wsowicz2015ECigaretteUA,
  title={E-Cigarette use among children and young people: the need for regulation},
  author={Adam Wąsowicz and Wojciech Feleszko and Maciej Lukasz Goniewicz},
  journal={Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine},
  year={2015},
  volume={9},
  pages={507 - 509}
}
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are devices designed to deliver nicotine to the body via the route of inhalation. The principle of operation is based on heating a nicotine solution in propylene glycol and/or glycerine (e-liquid), turning it into aerosol (commonly called ‘vapour’), which is then inhaled by the user. The scientific evidence on the health consequences of long-term e-cigarette use is sparse and currently inconclusive. Young people are the most vulnerable group to initiate use… 
E-CIGARETTES: HARMLESS SUBSTITUTE TO CONVENTIONAL SMOKING OR A DEVIL IN DISGUISE?
TLDR
There is a need for more in-depth studies on not only the constitution of e-cigarette products, but also to ascertain whether these produce significant harmful health effects to their users in the short term or in the long run.
Environmental pollution and emission factors of electronic cigarettes, heat-not-burn tobacco products, and conventional cigarettes
ABSTRACT The increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and, more recently, the new “heat-not-burn” tobacco products (iQOS) as alternatives to traditional tobacco cigarettes has
Beliefs and reality of e-cigarette smoking
TLDR
A case of nicotine addiction due to chronic use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) and the beliefs on safety and awareness of their side effects are described to clear out misconceptions of this large-scale condition.
Explosions, Burn Injuries and Adverse Health Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Review of Current Regulations and Future Perspectives.
  • A. AhmedBeverly EtcheyM. Ahmed
  • Medicine
    Journal of pharmacy & pharmaceutical sciences : a publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Societe canadienne des sciences pharmaceutiques
  • 2021
TLDR
Overall, the current literature demonstrates that ENDS are not a safe alternative to traditional cigarettes due to explosion risks and negative health effects including addiction, adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects, heavy metal leaching, and toxic byproducts exposure.
Youth Access to Electronic Cigarettes in an Unrestricted Market: A Cross-Sectional Study from Poland
TLDR
Prior to implementing age-related sales restrictions, youth access to e-cigarettes and paraphernalia did not pose any significant barriers, and Poland’s introduction of a new age limit on e-cigarette sales may help to limit the number of youths who purchase e- cigarettes from vape shops.
Electronic cigarette initiation among minority youth in the United States
TLDR
Among minority youth, e-cigarette initiation was associated with perceptions of harm and addiction potential, as well as exposure to e- cigarette advertising, which may benefit prevention efforts targeting minority youth who are at risk of becoming e-cigarettes initiators.
Exploring Attitudes of Children 12–17 Years of Age Toward Electronic Cigarettes
TLDR
Among youth EC are perceived as less harmful, easier to access and use than CC and clear and unambiguous education about the risk of engaging in any form of smoking/vaping and enforcement of access restrictions appear to be required.
Flavourings significantly affect inhalation toxicity of aerosol generated from electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)
TLDR
The data suggest that characteristics of ENDS products, including flavours, may induce inhalation toxicity, and ENDS users should use the products with caution until more comprehensive studies are performed.
Tobacco Use and Its Developmental Effects in Children and Adolescents
TLDR
Studies on the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions do not suggest significantly positive tobacco cessation outcomes for children and adolescents, except perhaps for the selective use of nicotine replacement for the heavy tobacco using adolescent.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES
The regulatory challenge of electronic cigarettes.
TLDR
E-cigarettes likely pose less direct hazard to the individual smoker than tobacco cigarettes and might help smokers quit smoking or reduce harm by smoking fewer tobacco cigarettes, but there are potential harms, including promoting continued smoking of cigarettes and renormalizing cigarette smoking behaviors.
Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit.
TLDR
Allowing EC to compete with cigarettes in the market-place might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality and health professionals may consider advising smokers unable or unwilling to quit through other routes to switch to EC as a safer alternative to smoking and a possible pathway to complete cessation of nicotine use.
Nicotine and the Developing Human: A Neglected Element in the Electronic Cigarette Debate.
Calls to Poison Centers for Exposures to Electronic Cigarettes — United States, September 2010–February 2014
TLDR
Although e-cigarette use is increasing among U.S. adolescents and adults, its overall impact on public health remains unclear and one area of concern is the potential of e-cigarettes to cause acute nicotine toxicity.
Electronic Cigarettes: Vulnerability of Youth.
TLDR
Starting nicotine use and increasing dependence in the population may be linked with increased tobacco and other addictive substance abuse even if the individual electronic cigarette delivers less harm than a combustible cigarette does.
Electronic cigarettes are a source of thirdhand exposure to nicotine.
  • M. GoniewiczL. Lee
  • Medicine
    Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
  • 2015
TLDR
There is a risk for thirdhand exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes, and levels differ depending on the surface and the e-cigarette brand.
Reasons for Electronic Cigarette Experimentation and Discontinuation Among Adolescents and Young Adults.
TLDR
E-cigarette prevention efforts toward youth should include limiting e-cigarette flavors, communicating messages emphasizing the health risks of use, and changing social norms surrounding the use of e-cigarettes.
Electronic cigarette sales to minors via the internet.
TLDR
Minors are easily able to purchase e-cigarettes from the Internet because of an absence of age-verification measures used by Internet e-cigarette vendors, and federal law should require and enforce rigorous age verification in Internet cigarette sales.
Nicotine levels in electronic cigarette refill solutions: A comparative analysis of products from the U.S., Korea, and Poland.
Rise in electronic cigarette use among adolescents in Poland.
...
...