Dysuria due to discospondylitis and intervertebral disc herniation in a male alpaca (Vicugna pacos)


BACKGROUND Dysuria in camelids is usually associated with the presence of lower urinary tract disease such as urolithiasis. As another differential diagnosis, urine retention may be caused by neurological disturbances resulting from infections of the spinal cord, discospondylitis or trauma. CASE PRESENTATION A 2.5-year-old male Huacaya alpaca (Vicugna… (More)
DOI: 10.1186/s13028-016-0216-5


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