Dysthymic disorder: psychopathology of proposed chronic depressive subtypes.

  title={Dysthymic disorder: psychopathology of proposed chronic depressive subtypes.},
  author={Hagop Souren Akiskal},
  journal={The American journal of psychiatry},
  volume={140 1},
The author develops a nosologic framework for understanding the psychopathology of low-grade chronic depressions: 1) late-onset primary depressions with residual chronicity, 2) chronic secondary dysphorias, having a variable onset age and considered part of the symptomatic picture of nonaffective "neurotic" disorders or reactions to longstanding incapacitating medical diseases, and 3) early-onset characterologic depressions, which include a) character-spectrum disorders developing in the… CONTINUE READING


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