Dysregulation of Lysyl Oxidase Expression in Lesions and Endometrium of Women With Endometriosis.

Abstract

UNLABELLED Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are enzymes involved in collagen deposition, extracellular membrane remodeling, and invasive/metastatic potential. Previous studies reveal an association of LOXs and endometriosis. We aimed to identify the mechanisms activated by upregulation of lysyl oxidases (LOX) in endometriotic cells and tissues. We hypothesized that LOX plays a role in endometriosis by promoting invasiveness and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). METHODS The LOX protein expression levels were measured by immunohistochemistry in lesions and endometrium on a tissue microarray (TMA) and in endometrial biopsies from patients and controls during the window of implantation (WOI). Estradiol regulation of LOX expression was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Proliferation, invasion, and migration assays were performed in epithelial (endometrial epithelial cell), endometrial (human endometrial stromal cell), and endometriotic cell lines (ECL and 12Z). Pathway-focused multiplex qPCR was used to determine transcriptome changes due to LOX overexpression. RESULTS LOX protein was differentially expressed in ovarian versus peritoneal lesions. During WOI, LOX levels were higher in luminal epithelium of patients with endometriosis-associated infertility compared to controls. Invasive epithelial cell lines expressed higher levels of LOX than noninvasive ones. Transfection of LOX into noninvasive epithelial cells increased their migration in an LOX inhibitor-sensitive manner. Overexpression of LOX did not fully induce EMT but the expression of genes related to fibrosis and extracellular matrix remodeling were dysregulated. CONCLUSIONS This study documents that expression of LOX is differentially regulated in endometriotic lesions and endometrium. A role for LOX in mediating proliferation, migration, and invasion of endometrial and endometriotic cells was observed, which may be implicated in the establishment and progression of endometriotic lesions.

DOI: 10.1177/1933719115585144

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@article{Ruiz2015DysregulationOL, title={Dysregulation of Lysyl Oxidase Expression in Lesions and Endometrium of Women With Endometriosis.}, author={Lynnette A Ruiz and Perla M. B{\'a}ez-Vega and Abigail Ruiz and Dani{\"{e}lle P Peterse and Janice B Monteiro and Nabal Jose Bracero and Pedro Beauchamp and Asgerally T. Fazleabas and Idhaliz Flores}, journal={Reproductive sciences}, year={2015}, volume={22 12}, pages={1496-508} }