Dysregulated Tim-3 expression on natural killer cells is associated with increased Galectin-9 levels in HIV-1 infection

  title={Dysregulated Tim-3 expression on natural killer cells is associated with increased Galectin-9 levels in HIV-1 infection},
  author={S. D. Jost and Uriel Y. Moreno-Nieves and Wilfredo F. Garcia-Beltran and Keith Rands and Jeff Reardon and Ildik{\'o} T{\'o}th and Alicja Piechocka-Trocha and Marcus Altfeld and Marylyn Martina Addo},
Natural killer (NK) cells constitutively express high levels of Tim-3, an immunoregulatory molecule recently proposed to be a marker for mature and functional NK cells. Whether HIV-1 infection modulates the expression of Tim-3 on NK cells, or the levels of its ligand Galectin-9 (Gal-9), and how signaling through these molecules affects the NK cell response to HIV-1 remains inadequately understood. We analyzed Tim-3 and Gal-9 expression in a cohort of 85 individuals with early and chronic HIV-1… CONTINUE READING
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