Dyslexia and the anchoring-deficit hypothesis

@article{Ahissar2007DyslexiaAT,
  title={Dyslexia and the anchoring-deficit hypothesis},
  author={Merav Ahissar},
  journal={Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
  year={2007},
  volume={11},
  pages={458-465}
}
  • M. Ahissar
  • Published 1 November 2007
  • Psychology
  • Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills
Anchoring the deficit of the anchor deficit: dyslexia or attention?
TLDR
A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia and concludes that a single deficit in time estimation is not sufficient to cause reading deficits.
On the importance of anchoring and the consequences of its impairment in dyslexia.
TLDR
Evidence is presented that a domain general, rather than a phonology specific, deficits in the ability to implicitly use contextual information, which is term anchoring, can account for both working memory and auditory discrimination deficits.
Rapid naming deficits in dyslexia: a stumbling block for the perceptual anchor theory of dyslexia.
TLDR
The perceptual anchor theory does not provide a satisfactory account of some of the major hallmark effects of developmental dyslexia, as tested by comparing rapid naming performance of a small set of repeated items with that of a large set of unrepeated items.
Perception of Non-Verbal Auditory Stimuli in Italian Dyslexic Children
TLDR
Three tasks of auditory processing of non-verbal stimuli, involving discrimination and reproduction of sequences of rapidly presented short sounds were expressly created, suggesting the presence of a deficit only partially influenced by the duration of the stimuli and of inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs).
Auditory frequency discrimination in adults with dyslexia: a test of the anchoring hypothesis.
TLDR
There is no difference between this group of adults with dyslexia and controls in their capacity to form a perceptual anchor, suggesting that an anchoring deficit cannot be generalized to all cases of dyslexa.
Shorter neural adaptation to sounds accounts for dyslexics’ abnormal perceptual and reading dynamics
TLDR
It is proposed that dyslexics’ shorter neural adaptation paradoxically accounts for their longer reading times, since it induces noisier and less reliable predictions for both simple and complex stimuli.
Dyslexic Adults Can Learn from Repeated Stimulus Presentation but Have Difficulties in Excluding External Noise
TLDR
The results support the hypothesis that an external noise exclusion deficit, not a perceptual anchoring deficit, impairs reading for adults.
Auditory Stimulus Processing and Task Learning Are Adequate in Dyslexia, but Benefits From Regularities Are Reduced.
TLDR
Findings indicate that online auditory processing for individuals with dyslexia is adequate but their implicit retention and usage of sound regularities is indeed impaired.
Auditory and Visual Processing in Children With Dyslexia
TLDR
This study investigated the temporal stability and longitudinal replicability of visual and auditory sensory processes found to be poor in children with dyslexia and found associations were found between sensory and cognitive skills.
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References

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Impaired processing of rapid stimulus sequences in dyslexia
Dyslexia and the failure to form a perceptual anchor
TLDR
This work found that D-LDs perform as well as normal readers in speech perception in noise and in a difficult tone comparison task, however, their performance did not improve when these same tasks were performed with a smaller stimulus set.
Patterns of deficit in auditory temporal processing among dyslexic adults
TLDR
Findings show that, though both groups suffer from non-phonological deficits in auditory discrimination, the nature of their deficits differs, and dyslexics with excellent cognitive abilities seem to have slow, yet adequate, stimulus identification and comparison mechanisms.
The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias.
The authors propose an alternative conceptualization of the developmental dyslexias, the double-deficit hypothesis (i.e., phonological deficits and processes underlying naming-speed deficits
Developmental surface dyslexia is not associated with deficits in the transient visual system
TLDR
Comparison sensitivity thresholds to phase-reversal gratings were within normal limits for most subjects both for stimuli presented centrally and in the right parafovea, indicating that developmental surface dyslexia is not associated with a deficit in the transient system.
Amplitude envelope onsets and developmental dyslexia: A new hypothesis
TLDR
This work argues that a likely perceptual cause of developmental dyslexia is a deficit in the perceptual experience of rhythmic timing, and shows significant differences between dyslexic and normally reading children, and between young early readers and normal developers, in amplitude envelope onset detection.
Auditory processing deficits in dyslexia: task or stimulus related?
TLDR
The degree of impairment was dependent on task rather than stimulus complexity, which suggests that dyslexics with additional learning difficulties (D-LDs) suffer from a similar type of deficits when processing speech and nonspeech sounds.
What Phonological Deficit?
TLDR
It is proposed that individuals with dyslexia have a deficit in access to phonological representations and it is speculated that a similar notion might also adequately describe the nature of other associated cognitive deficits when present.
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