Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans

  title={Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans},
  author={Kirsty L. Spalding and Erik Arner and P{\aa}l O. Westermark and Samuel Bernard and Bruce A Buchholz and Olaf Bergmann and Lennart Blomqvist and Johan Hoffstedt and Erik N{\"a}slund and Tom Britton and H{\'e}rnan Concha and Moustapha Hassan and Mikael Ryd{\'e}n and Jonas Fris{\'e}n and Peter Arner},
Obesity is increasing in an epidemic manner in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining fat mass in adult humans are not fully understood, but increased lipid storage in already developed fat cells (adipocytes) is thought to be… 

Adipose cell and lipid turnovers in obesity and insulin resistance

  • T. Izumi
  • Biology
    Diabetology International
  • 2012
The study authors confirmed that adipocyte number in individuals with early onset of obesity is higher than in lean individuals, and demonstrated that 8.4 % of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index (BMI).

Dynamics of human adipose lipid turnover in health and metabolic disease

The data support a mechanism in which adipocyte lipid storage and removal have different roles in health and pathology, and identify adipocytes lipid turnover as a novel target for prevention and treatment of metabolic disease.

Dynamics of Human Adipose Tissue. Regulatory Mechanisms and Consequences for Fat Cells and the Whole Body

Adipose hyperplasia is associated with an adverse metabolic profile in large population-based samples, and adipocyte turnover is important for the development of obesity and for the metabolic profile.

Maintenance of white adipose tissue in man.

Human white adipose tissue: A highly dynamic metabolic organ

Alterations in the turnover of fat cells and their lipids are therefore novel factors to consider in the pathophysiology of common metabolic disorders.

Modeling Diabetes in the US Adult Population

The results of this dissertation support the contention that the BMI may have limited utility for obesity classification and risk stratification, and highlight the heterogeneity of risk across the BMI continuum.

Obesity in the Pathophysiology of Diabetes

The maintenance of a healthy weight, usually achieved between 18 and 25 years of age, requires a life-long sustained energy equilibrium between energy intake and energy expended, which is affected not only by diet but also age, stage of development, genetic makeup as well as epigenetic, level of nutritional education, and physical and psychosocial interactions.

Dynamics of adipose tissue turnover in human metabolic health and disease

A brief summary of findings derived from in vitro techniques, as well as an overview of two in vivo methods that are being implemented to assess the turnover of adipose cells and TGs are provided.

Waves of Adipose Tissue Growth in the Genetically Obese Zucker Fatty Rat

A simple model is proposed for the periodicity, with PPAR signaling driven by a deficit in lipid uptake capacity leading to the periodic recruitment of new adipocytes, and this model predicts that the observed period will be diet-dependent.

Human adipose dynamics and metabolic health

Therapeutic approaches targeting adipose tissue have been proven to be effective in improving obesity‐related metabolic disorders, and promising new therapies could be developed in the near future.



Effects of age, sex, and clinical conditions on adipose tissue cellularity in man.

  • P. Björntorp
  • Medicine, Biology
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental
  • 1974

Regulation of adipose cell number in man.

This review largely focuses on the control of fat cell acquisition and loss and the influence of these processes on adipose tissue mass and regional distribution.

The growth of adipose tissue in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adipose cell number and size.

Obese children display both quantitative and qualitative differences in fat tissue development when compared to nonobese children, indicating that the rate and type of adipose tissue cellular development one encounters in children may play a role in the development of the enlarged fat depots found in obese subjects.

Effect of an energy-reduced dietary regimen in relation to adipose tissue cellularity in obese women.

The results suggest that when the fat cell size in different regions of an individual are known, as well as the total fat cell number, the success of an energy-reduced dietary regimen might be approximately predicted both in terms of remaining total body fat and in regional fat depot decrease.

Relationship of childhood obesity to coronary heart disease risk factors in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

Because normal-weight children who become obese adults have adverse risk factor levels and probably will be at increased risk for adult morbidity, the results emphasize the need for both primary and secondary prevention.

Adipose tissue cellularity in obese school girls before and after dietary treatment.

Treatment of childhood obesity may be of importance for the prevention of obesity later in life, according to the results of Mean fat cell size and adipose tissue cellularity studied.

Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

In obese individuals, adipose tissue releases increased amounts of non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, pro-inflammatory cytokines and other factors that are involved in the development of insulin resistance.

Adipose tissue cellularity in human obesity.

Long-term prospective and controlled studies demonstrate adipose tissue hypercellularity and relative leptin deficiency in the postobese state.

Adipose tissue hyperplasia (too many small fat cells) and low leptin production resulting in relative hypoleptinemia in the fasting (basal) state are common features of the postobese state in women.

Apoptosis of human adipocytes in vitro.

It is shown that human adipocytes undergo apoptosis following growth factor deprivation or mild heat injury in vitro, thus demonstrating a cellular mechanism by which normal adipocyte loss could occur in vivo.