Dynamic model of the octopus arm. I. Biomechanics of the octopus reaching movement.

@article{Yekutieli2005DynamicMO,
  title={Dynamic model of the octopus arm. I. Biomechanics of the octopus reaching movement.},
  author={Yoram Yekutieli and Roni Sagiv-Zohar and Ranit Aharonov and Yaakov Engel and Binyamin Hochner and Tamar Flash},
  journal={Journal of neurophysiology},
  year={2005},
  volume={94 2},
  pages={
          1443-58
        }
}
The octopus arm requires special motor control schemes because it consists almost entirely of muscles and lacks a rigid skeletal support. Here we present a 2D dynamic model of the octopus arm to explore possible strategies of movement control in this muscular hydrostat. The arm is modeled as a multisegment structure, each segment containing longitudinal and transverse muscles and maintaining a constant volume, a prominent feature of muscular hydrostats. The input to the model is the degree of… 

Dynamic model of the octopus arm. II. Control of reaching movements.

The modeling suggests that the octopus arm biomechanics may allow independent control of kinematics and resistance to perturbation during arm extension movements.

Kinematic decomposition and classification of octopus arm movements

A novel representation of octopus arm movements is described in which a movement is characterized by a pair of surfaces that represent the curvature and torsion values of points along the arm as a function of time.

Energy Shaping Control of a Muscular Octopus Arm Moving in Three Dimensions

A three-dimensional model of a soft octopus arm, equipped with biomechanically realistic muscle actuation, and a computationally efficient procedure to design task-specific equilibrium configurations, obtained by solving an optimization problem in the Special Euclidean group SE(3).

Modeling the Neuromuscular Control System of an Octopus Arm

A model for the PNS is built and the proposed neuromuscular architecture is used to qualitatively reproduce several biophysical observations in real octopuses, including curled rest shapes and target-directed arm reaching motions.

Hydrodynamic analysis of octopus-like robotic arms

We consider robotic analogues of the arms of the octopus, a cephalopod exhibiting a wide variety of dexterous movements and complex shapes, moving in an aquatic environment. Although an invertebrate,

Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming

This work investigates the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning, and a lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer was used.

Computing with a muscular-hydrostat system

This paper demonstrates that the muscular-hydrostat system itself has the computational capacity to achieve a complex nonlinear computation and systematically analyzes its computational power in terms of memory capacity, and shows that the system has an intrinsic and characteristic short term memory profile.

Motor control pathways in the nervous system of Octopus vulgaris arm

The organization of the connections between the brain and arms through the cerebrobrachial tracts is investigated and neuronal activity associated with the contraction of a small muscle strand left connected at the middle of a long isolated CBT suggests that axons associated with transmitting motor commands run along the CBT and innervate a large pool of motor neurons en passant.

Control-oriented Modeling of Bend Propagation in an Octopus Arm

A control-oriented reduced order model based upon a novel parametrization of the curvature of the octopus arm is presented and compared using numerical simulations to lead to useful qualitative insights into bend propagation.

Soft robotic arm inspired by the octopus: I. From biological functions to artificial requirements

The functional morphology of the internal tissues, including the sinusoidal arrangement of the nerve cord and the local insertion points of the longitudinal and transverse muscle fibres were investigated to create novel design principles and specifications that can be used in developing a new soft robotic arm.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES

Dynamic model of the octopus arm. II. Control of reaching movements.

The modeling suggests that the octopus arm biomechanics may allow independent control of kinematics and resistance to perturbation during arm extension movements.

Organization of Octopus Arm Movements: A Model System for Studying the Control of Flexible Arms

It is proposed that this strategy reduces the immense redundancy of the octopus arm movements and hence simplifies motor control.

Patterns of Arm Muscle Activation Involved in Octopus Reaching Movements

The results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement.

Biomechanics of a muscular hydrostat: a model of lapping by a reptilian tongue

A quantitative model of an example of a muscular hydrostat, a reptilian tongue, is developed and used to study a functional movement, protrusion and retrusion, a form of lapping.

Neuromuscular system of the flexible arm of the octopus: physiological characterization.

The lack of significant electrical coupling between muscle fibers and the indications for the small size of the motor units suggest that the neuromuscular system of the octopus arm has evolved to ensure a high level of precise localization in the neural control of arm function.

Tongues, tentacles and trunks: the biomechanics of movement in muscular‐hydrostats

The means by which muscular-hydrostats produce elongation, shortening, bending and torsion are discussed.

A model of the hydrostatic skeleton of the leech.

A mathematical model of the hydrostatic skeleton of the leech has been developed to predict the shape of and internal pressure within the animal in response to a given pattern of motor neuron activity in different behaviors, and results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Biomechanical properties and a kinetic simulation model of the smooth muscle I2 in the buccal mass of Aplysia

The results and I2's estimated in vivo kinematics suggest that it generates maximum force at the onset of protraction, and visco-elastic properties suggest that the I2 muscle can serve to brake forceful retraction movements.

Control of Octopus Arm Extension by a Peripheral Motor Program

It is shown that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms whose connection with the brain has been severed, suggesting that the basic motor program for voluntary movement is embedded within the neural circuitry of the arm itself.

Simulating the motion of the leech: A biomechanical application of DAEs

First simulations with a simplified set of parameters show that the model is capable of generating basic movements of the leech such as crawling and swimming.