Dynamic microscopy of nanoscale cluster growth at the solid–liquid interface

  title={Dynamic microscopy of nanoscale cluster growth at the solid–liquid interface},
  author={Mark J. Williamson and Rudolf M. Tromp and Philippe M. Vereecken and Richard Hull and Frances M. Ross},
  journal={Nature Materials},
Dynamic processes at the solid–liquid interface are of key importance across broad areas of science and technology. Electrochemical deposition of copper, for example, is used for metallization in integrated circuits, and a detailed understanding of nucleation, growth and coalescence is essential in optimizing the final microstructure. Our understanding of processes at the solid–vapour interface has advanced tremendously over the past decade due to the routine availability of real-time, high… Expand

Paper Mentions

Visualization of Colloidal Nanocrystal Formation and Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Liquids Using TEM.
The development and applications of liquid cell TEM for the study of dynamic phenomena at liquid-solid interfaces, focusing on nucleation, growth, and self-assembly of colloidal nanocrystals and electrode-electrolyte interfaces during charge and discharge processes are reviewed. Expand
Tracking Metal Electrodeposition Dynamics from Nucleation and Growth of a Single Atom to a Crystalline Nanoparticle.
The importance of electrochemically driven atom transport, atom cluster formation, cluster progression to a nanoparticle, and the mechanism by which neighboring particles interact during growth are revealed, to help formulate improved nucleation and growth models and promote wider uptake of electrodeposited structures in a wide range of societally important applications. Expand
Observing the growth of metal-organic frameworks by in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy.
By controlling the liquid cell membrane surface chemistry and electron beam conditions, the dynamics and growth of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be observed and it is demonstrated that hybrid organic/inorganic beam-sensitive materials can be analyzed with LCTEM and the results correlate with observations from bulk growth or other standard synthetic conditions. Expand
Liquid cell electron microscopy with the nanoaquarium: Radiation and electrochemistry
The advent of the electron microscope has fostered major advances in a broad spectrum of disciplines. The required vacuum environment of standard electron microscopy, however, precludes imaging ofExpand
Nanoscale evolution of interface morphology during electrodeposition
The evolution of an electrochemical growth front is quantified, using liquid cell electron microscopy to access unexplored length and time scales, and it is found that the growth front initially evolves consistent with kinetic roughening theory, but subsequently roughens more rapidly, consistent with diffusion-limited growth physics. Expand
In Liquid Observation and Quantification of Nucleation and Growth of Gold Nanostructures Using in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy
In situ liquid transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful technique for observing nanoscale processes in their native liquid environment and in real time. However, the imaging electron beamExpand
In Situ Determination of the Nanoscale Chemistry and Behavior of Solid-Liquid Systems
Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy on partially molten Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy particles during in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope is shown to determine that the aluminum and silicon concentrations change in a complementary and symmetric manner about the solid-liquid interface as a function of temperature. Expand
Direct in situ observation of nanoparticle synthesis in a liquid crystal surfactant template.
Direct in situ observations of synthesis in a highly viscous lyotropic liquid crystal template on the nanoscale using a fluid stage in the STEM provides an unprecedented understanding of the fundamental steps of nanomaterial synthesis. Expand
Nucleation, growth, and superlattice formation of nanocrystals observed in liquid cell transmission electron microscopy
This article reviews the advancements and prospects of liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and analysis methods in understanding the nucleation, growth, etching, and assemblyExpand
Real-time tracking of metal nucleation via local perturbation of hydration layers
Stochastic nucleation events of nanoscale copper deposits are visualized in real time for the first time and a highly dynamic topographic environment prior to the formation of critical nuclei is unveiled, featuring formation/re-dissolution of nuclei, two-dimensional aggregation and nuclei growth. Expand


In situ video-STM studies of dynamic processes at electrochemical interfaces.
Direct observations of the equilibrium fluctuations at atomic kinks in the steps on the crystal surface due to the local removal/addition of atoms reveal the same anisotropic behavior found previously in Cu-free electrolytes, caused by the influence of the ordered Cl adlayer on the kink structure. Expand
Atomistic Processes in the Early Stages of Thin-Film Growth
The atomic nature of the most important kinetic mechanisms of film growth is explored, which include adatom diffusion on terraces, along steps, and around island corners; nucleation and dynamics of the stable nucleus; atom attachment to and detachment from terraces and islands; and interlayer mass transport. Expand
Mechanic Study of Copper Deposition onto Gold Surfaces by Scaling and Spectral Analysis of In Situ Atomic Force Microscopic Images
Copper electrodeposition from three acidic solutions containin (i) no additive, (ii) 100 μM benzotriazole, and (iii) 100 μM thiourea was studied by in situ atomic force microscopy. TheExpand
Development of Wet Environmental TEM (Wet-ETEM) for In Situ Studies of Liquid-Catalyst Reactions on the Nanoscale
  • P. Gai
  • Medicine, Materials Science
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis
  • 2002
The development of in situ wet environmental transmission electron microscopy (Wet-ETEM) for direct probing of controlled liquid–catalyst reactions at operating temperatures on the nanoscale opens up new opportunities for high resolution studies of a wide range of solution–solid and solution–gas–solid reactions in the chemical and biological sciences. Expand
Atomic-Resolution Electrochemistry with the Atomic Force Microscope: Copper Deposition on Gold
The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image an electrode surface at atomic resolution while the electrode was under potential control in a fluid electrolyte and revealed that the underpotential-deposited monolayer has different structures in different electrolytes. Expand
Ordering in a Fluid Inert Gas Confined by Flat Surfaces
High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of room-temperature fluid xenon in small faceted cavities in aluminum reveal the presence of three well-defined layers within the fluid at eachExpand
In-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to enhance Cu electrodeposition on Cu and Au single crystal electrodes. On Cu surfaces, the enhanced deposition effect depends primarily on tip-sampleExpand
The influence of steps on the deposition of Cu onto Au(111)
Abstract The deposition of Cu onto stepped Au(111) surfaces from sulfuric acid solutions has been studied in the underpotential and overpotential range in order to elucidate the role of surfaceExpand
Electrochemical copper deposition on Au(100): a combined in situ STM and in situ surface X-ray diffraction study
Abstract The electrochemical deposition of copper onto Au(100) has been investigated using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and in situ surface X-ray scattering (SXS). Copper depositionExpand
Copper Deposition onto Au(111) in the Presence of Thiourea
The influence of thiourea on the initial stages of Cu deposition on an Au(111) electrode has been studied by potential-step experiments and by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. It is shown thatExpand