Dwarfs Cooler than “M”: The Definition of Spectral Type “L” Using Discoveries from the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS)

@article{Kirkpatrick1999DwarfsCT,
  title={Dwarfs Cooler than “M”: The Definition of Spectral Type “L” Using Discoveries from the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS)},
  author={J. Davy Kirkpatrick and I. Neill Reid and James William Liebert and Roc M. Cutri and Brant O. Nelson and Charles A. Beichman and Conard C. Dahn and David G. Monet and John E. Gizis and Michael F. Skrutskie},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={1999},
  volume={519},
  pages={802 - 833}
}
Before the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) began, only six objects were known with spectral types later than M9.5 V. In the first 371 deg2 of actual 2MASS survey data, we have identified another 20 such objects spectroscopically confirmed using the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (LRIS) at the W. M. Keck Observatory. Because the TiO and VO bands, which dominate the far-optical portions of late-M spectra, disappear in these cooler dwarfs, we define a new spectral class "L" in which metallic… 

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