A total of 54 ovariectomized female guinea pigs were divided into three groups and tested six times at 2-week intervals for their responsiveness to exogenous ovarian hormones (3 days of 4 micrograms/kg estradiol benzoate plus 1 day of 0.4 mg/kg progesterone) or control injections (0.2 ml oil vehicle). Two weeks after ovariectomy, treatment with estradiol significantly reduced food intake and body weight, and also produced vaginal membrane rupture in 98.1% of the females. When tested for sexual behavior at 4, 6, and 8 hr after the progesterone injection, 29 of the subjects (53.7%) displayed lordosis in response to manual stimulation. Twelve weeks after ovariectomy, the effects of estradiol on food intake, body weight, and vaginal membrane condition had not diminished. However, the overall proportion of females from which lordosis could be elicited declined to 27.8%. Biweekly injections of estradiol benzoate plus progesterone to one of the groups of females did not prevent this decline in the sexual response. Based on these results, it was concluded that the observed reduction in behavioral lordosis does not represent a general decline in the responsiveness of ovariectomized guinea pigs to estrogenic stimulation, but may involve changes in their responsiveness to progesterone or in other mechanisms more specifically associated with sexual behavior.