Durable therapeutic efficacy utilizing combinatorial blockade against IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 in mice with brain tumors.

@article{Wainwright2014DurableTE,
  title={Durable therapeutic efficacy utilizing combinatorial blockade against IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 in mice with brain tumors.},
  author={Derek A. Wainwright and Alan L. Chang and Mahua Dey and Irina V. Balyasnikova and Chung K. Kim and Alex L. Tobias and Yu Cheng and Julius Woongki Kim and Jian Qiao and Lingjiao Zhang and Yu Han and Maciej S. Lesniak},
  journal={Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research},
  year={2014},
  volume={20 20},
  pages={5290-301}
}
PURPOSE Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma in adults. Although protected by both the blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers, GBMs are actively infiltrated by T cells. Previous work has shown that IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 are dominant molecular participants in the suppression of GBM immunity. This includes IDO-mediated regulatory T-cell (Treg; CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) accumulation, the interaction of T-cell-expressed, CTLA-4, with dendritic cell-expressed, CD80, as well as… CONTINUE READING
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