Effect of the antitumoral alkylating agent 3-bromopyruvate on mitochondrial respiration: role of mitochondrially bound hexokinase.
Malic enzyme of duck liver is alkylated by bromopyruvate with half-of-the-sites stoichiometry, and with accompanying loss of oxidative decarboxylase and enhancement of pyruvate reductase activities as was previously shown for the pigeon enzyme (Hsu, R.Y. (1982) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 43, 3-26). In the present work, the alkylated enzyme is shown to bind NADPH, but not L-malate in the presence of MnCl2, indicating impairment of the enzyme site for the substrate and/or divalent metal. The enzyme was differentially labeled by 3-bromo-1-[14C]-pyruvate and digested with TPCK-treated trypsin. Two peptides bearing the susceptible residue were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and sequenced. Peptide II has the sequence of FMPIVYTPTVGLAXQQYGLAFR, corresponding to residues 86-107 (temporary numbering) of the duck enzyme; cysteine-99(x) is not detected, indicating that it is the target of modification by bromopyruvate. Peptide I is a truncated form of peptide II lacking five amino acid residues at the C-terminal. Cysteine-99 is conserved in malic enzymes from duck, rat, mouse, maize, human, Flaveria trinervia and Bacillus stearothermophilus.