Dual protection against unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections: what is the best contraceptive approach?

  title={Dual protection against unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections: what is the best contraceptive approach?},
  author={Willard Cates and Markus J. Steiner},
  journal={Sexually transmitted diseases},
  volume={29 3},
In the midst of the global epidemics of both unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection, contraceptive options that provide dual protection are ideal. However, those contraceptives with the best record of preventing pregnancy under typical use conditions (sterilization, hormonal methods, intrauterine devices) provide little if any protection against sexually transmitted infection. Alternatively, barrier contraceptive methods (specifically, condoms), which can reduce risks of many… 

Preventing unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission: dual protection or dual dilemma?

In sub-Saharan Africa where HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are highly prevalent use of progestin-only contraceptives including the 3-monthly injection depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the 2- monthly injection norethindrone enanthate appears to be increasing rapidly.

Simultaneous prevention of unintended pregnancy and STIs: a challenging compromise.

The consequences of unsafe sex-unintended pregnancy and STI-continue to present major public health problems worldwide even in countries where the prevalence of use of modern contraception is high, and systematic attempts to compare patterns of sexual behaviour across men and women of all ages are welcome.

Sexually transmitted infections and contraceptives: selective issues.

Protecting Against Both Pregnancy and Disease: Predictors of Dual Method Use Among a Sample of Women

ABSTRACT Although male condoms are the best form of protection against HIV/STDs, they are not the most effective method for preventing unintended pregnancy. Consequently, use of condoms and a highly

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Contraceptive Use in Adolescents.

Dual use of long-acting reversible contraceptives and condoms among adolescents.

Behavioral interventions for improving dual-method contraceptive use.

Few behavioral interventions for improving dual-method contraceptive use are found and little evidence of effectiveness is found.

Condoms for Dual Protection: Patterns of Use with Highly Effective Contraceptive Methods

Adding condoms to other methods should be considered seriously as the first line of defense against unplanned pregnancy and STIs as part of target interventions where dual-method promotion is needed most.

Strategies for managing the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy among Puerto Rican and African American young adults.

The focus needs to shift the focus from dual-method use toward a broader concept of dual protection to be more responsive to young adults' concerns, perceptions, and priorities.



Contraceptive practices before and after an intervention promoting condom use to prevent HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases among women--selected U.S. sites, 1993-1995.

Significant increases in consistent condom use for HIV/STD prevention increased among women using each contraceptive method studied, and the overall proportion of women protected against pregnancy increased.

Contraception, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted diseases: why isn't a simple solution possible?

  • W. Cates
  • Medicine
    American journal of epidemiology
  • 1996
A natural history of the sexual and reproductive events in a population of females reveals that the risk of unplanned pregnancies and STDs exists for nearly the entire reproductive period.

Consistency of condom use among users of injectable contraceptives.

The data suggest that the majority of users of injectables may not be protected from exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus and other STDs.

Should condom use be promoted for contraception to prevent transmission of sexual transmitted diseases and AIDS? ACSF Group. French National Survey of Sexual behavior.

The results suggest that reproductive issue should be taken into account in specific subgroups of the population when developing policies to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

Planned Condom Use Among Women Undergoing Tubal Sterilization

Use of condoms among sterilized women appears to be on the rise, women at higher risk for disease are more likely than others to be using condoms, and only a small group of women experience an increased risk for exposure to disease as a result of selecting this permanent method of contraception.

Effectiveness of an intervention promoting the female condom to patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

Use of barrier protection increased significantly after the intervention, and high use was maintained during a 6-month follow-up, according to initial visit and termination visit projections.

Emergency contraception--parsimony and prevention in the medicine cabinet.

Emergency contraceptive pills are extremely safe and home would add little toxic risk as a complement to other medicines and supplies in the home medicine cabinet just as home fire extinguishers allow residents to extinguish flames before they spread.

Condom use among women choosing long-term hormonal contraception.

Women with more than one sexual partner and those who received a message during counseling on the need to continue using condoms were more likely than others to use condoms in conjunction with the implant or injectable.

Condom use for disease prevention among unmarried U.S. women.

Results of logistic regression analysis showed that black women and those who believed condoms and spermicides are effective in protecting against disease were about twice as likely as their counterparts to use condoms for disease prevention every time or most times they had sex.