A study of disjunctive reasoning
SummaryWhilst it is currently fashionable to construct sequential models of reasoning, the results of recent experiments on conditional reasoning tasks are apparently incompatible with this notion.…
On interpreting reasoning data — A reply to Van Duyne
Conditional reasoning and the Wason selection task: Biconditional interpretation instead of reasoning bias
Two experiments were conducted to show that the IF … THEN … rules used in the different versions of Wason's (1966) selection task are not psychologically—though they are logically—equivalent. Some of…
An evaluation of dual-process theories of reasoning
- BiologyPsychonomic bulletin & review
This article evaluates the arguments and the evidence from a select number of key tasks that have been supportive of dual-reasoning theorists’ proposals and argues in favor of the alternative framework, which attempts to unify the different forms of reasoning identified by dual-process theorists under a single system.
On the conflict between logic and belief in syllogistic reasoning
- PsychologyMemory & cognition
A conflict between logic and belief is observed throughout, but at several levels of extent; even subjects who focus primarily on the conclusion are influenced to an extent by the logic.
Insight into a Reasoning Task: An Experimental Analysis.
The investigation identified several weaknesses in the presentation of material which were indicated in the experiment and the merits of a programmed text approach provided an interesting attempt to clarify problems of operational thought.
Reasoning with the THOG Problem: A Forty-Year Retrospective
Being able to create new information from already existing premises is the essence of human reasoning. This paper focuses on one of the most important experimental tasks that have been used to study…
Logic and human reasoning: an assessment of the deduction paradigm.
- PsychologyPsychological bulletin
It is suggested that the methods used for studying reasoning be reviewed, especially the instructional context, which necessarily defines pragmatic influences as biases.
Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate?
- PsychologyBehavioral and Brain Sciences
In a series of experiments involving most of the classic tasks in the heuristics and biases literature, the implications of individual differences in performance for each of the four explanations of the normative/descriptive gap are examined.
SHOWING 1-10 OF 30 REFERENCES
Reasoning about a Rule
- PsychologyThe Quarterly journal of experimental psychology
It is argued that the subjects did not give evidence of having acquired the characteristics of Piaget's “formal operational thought,” and it is suggested that the difficulty is due to a mental set for expecting a relation of truth, correspondence, or match to hold between sentences and states of affairs.
On the problems of interpreting reasoning data: Logical and psychological approaches.
REALISM AND LINGUISTIC COMPLEXITY IN REASONING
An experiment was performed to determine whether there would be a difference in insight between an inferential problem expressed in a symbolic and in a realistic form. The task consisted of the…
THE LANGUAGE OF INCONSISTENCY
This paper presents an interpretation of inconsistent remarks which subjects made in explaining their erroneous solutions to a difficult deductive problem. Four half-masked cards of the following…
REASONING AND A SENSE OF REALITY
An experiment was performed to determine whether the use of realistic materials would improve performance in a deceptive reasoning problem. The task involved selecting from a set of envelopes those…
Interpretation and Matching Bias in a Reasoning Task
Subjects were required to construct verifying and falsifying cases of conditional rules in which the presence and absence of negative components was varied. Their responses gave some indication of…
On the Failure to Eliminate Hypotheses in a Conceptual Task
The results showed that those subjects, who reached two or more incorrect conclusions, were unable, or unwilling to test their hypotheses, and the implications are discussed in relation to scientific thinking.
Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content
'Is there any other point to which you would wish to draw my attention?' 'To the curious incident of the dog in the night-time.' 'The dog did nothing in the night-time.' 'That was the curious…