Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition

  title={Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition},
  author={Jonathan St. B. T. Evans and Keith E. Stanovich},
  journal={Perspectives on Psychological Science},
  pages={223 - 241}
Dual-process and dual-system theories in both cognitive and social psychology have been subjected to a number of recently published criticisms. However, they have been attacked as a category, incorrectly assuming there is a generic version that applies to all. We identify and respond to 5 main lines of argument made by such critics. We agree that some of these arguments have force against some of the theories in the literature but believe them to be overstated. We argue that the dual-processing… Expand
The unity of higher cognition: the case against dual process theory
Dual process theorists posit the existence of two distinct types (type-1/type-2) of cognitive processing in order to explain domains of higher cognition such as reasoning and decision-making. SuchExpand
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It is argued that Carruthers, Evans, and Stanovich face a dilemma: either the distinction between intuitive and reflective (or autonomous and working memory involving) falls back on using the properties of the Standard Menu, or it lacks the explanatory promise that made dual-process theory attractive. Expand
Intuition & reason: re-assessing dual-process theories with representational sub-activation
There is a prevalent distinction in the literature on reasoning, between Type-1 processes, (fast, automatic, associative, heuristic and intuitive); and Type-2 processes (rule-based, analytical andExpand
On Dual and Single Process Models Of Thinking
Popular dual process models of thinking have long conceived intuition and deliberation as two qualitatively different processes. Single process model proponents claim that the difference is a matterExpand
A Case Study
  • Magda Osman
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2013
The aim of this commentary is to consider the defining characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2 processing that have been proposed and to suggest that the evidence can be taken to support quantitative differences rather than qualitatively distinct processes. Expand
Dual Process Theories
Dual-process theories propose that judgments and behavior can be understood as the product of two (sets of) qualitatively distinct processes, one being characterized by features of automaticExpand
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Content and Consciousness (CC in the other it refers to conscious mental acts involved in problem solving. In retrospect, this distinction anticipates the dual-process theories proposed by manyExpand
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Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition.
  • J. Evans
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annual review of psychology
  • 2008
This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology and suggests that while some dual-process theories are concerned with parallel competing processes involving explicit and implicit knowledge systems, others are concerns with the influence of preconscious processes that contextualize and shape deliberative reasoning and decision-making. Expand
An evaluation of dual-process theories of reasoning
  • M. Osman
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychonomic bulletin & review
  • 2004
This article evaluates the arguments and the evidence from a select number of key tasks that have been supportive of dual-reasoning theorists’ proposals and argues in favor of the alternative framework, which attempts to unify the different forms of reasoning identified by dual-process theorists under a single system. Expand
Dual System Theories of Cognition: Some Issues
Dual System Theories of Cognition: Some Issues Jonathan St B T Evans (jevans@plymouth.ac.uk) Centre for Thinking and Language, School of Psychology, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK thanExpand
In two minds: dual-process accounts of reasoning
  • J. Evans
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Trends in Cognitive Sciences
  • 2003
Researchers in thinking and reasoning have proposed recently that there are two distinct cognitive systems underlying reasoning, and experimental psychological evidence showing that the two systems compete for control of the authors' inferences and actions is presented. Expand
The duality of mind: an historical perspective
[About the book] This book explores the idea that we have two minds - automatic, unconscious, and fast, the other controlled, conscious, and slow. In recent years there has been great interest inExpand
On the resolution of conflict in dual process theories of reasoning
In this paper, I show that the question of how dual process theories of reasoning and judgement account for conflict between System 1 (heuristic) and System 2 (analytic) processes needs to beExpand
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A lay definition of intuition holds that it involves immediate apprehension in the absence of reasoning. From a more technical point of view, I argue also that intuition should be seen as theExpand
Dual Processing in Reasoning
Human reasoning has been characterized as an interplay between an automatic belief-based system and a demanding logic-based reasoning system. The present study tested a fundamental claim about theExpand
Individual differences in working memory capacity and dual-process theories of the mind.
Individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are examined. Expand
The complexity of cognition: tractability arguments for massive modularity
Acore commitment of contemporary nativism is that human beings possess innate, domain-specific mental structure, not merely for low-level perceptual processes but also for various ‘‘higher’’Expand