Drugs for Insomnia beyond Benzodiazepines: Pharmacology, Clinical Applications, and Discovery

  title={Drugs for Insomnia beyond Benzodiazepines: Pharmacology, Clinical Applications, and Discovery},
  author={Tobias Atkin and Stefano Comai and Gabriella Gobbi},
  journal={Pharmacological Reviews},
  pages={197 - 245}
Although the GABAergic benzodiazepines (BZDs) and Z-drugs (zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon) are FDA-approved for insomnia disorders with a strong evidence base, they have many side effects, including cognitive impairment, tolerance, rebound insomnia upon discontinuation, car accidents/falls, abuse, and dependence liability. Consequently, the clinical use of off-label drugs and novel drugs that do not target the GABAergic system is increasing. The purpose of this review is to analyze the… 

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