Drug-related side effects of long-term intrathecal morphine therapy.

  title={Drug-related side effects of long-term intrathecal morphine therapy.},
  author={Xiulu Ruan},
  journal={Pain physician},
  volume={10 2},
BACKGROUND The introduction of intrathecal opioid administration for intractable chronic non-malignant pain and cancer pain is considered as one of the most important breakthroughs in pain management. Morphine, the only opioid approved by FDA for intrathecal administration, has been increasingly utilized for this purpose. For over 3 decades, there have been numerous reports on the non-nociceptive side effects associated with ever increasing long-term intrathecal morphine usage. OBJECTIVES To… CONTINUE READING