Drug-induced gynecomastia: an evidence-based review

  title={Drug-induced gynecomastia: an evidence-based review},
  author={Fnu Deepinder and Glenn D Braunstein},
  journal={Expert Opinion on Drug Safety},
  pages={779 - 795}
Introduction: Drugs are estimated to cause about 10 – 25% of all cases of gynecomastia. Over the course of several decades, multiple medications have been implicated in the development of gynecomastia mostly in the form of case reports and case series. However, these reports suffer from a multitude of deficiencies, including poor quality of evidence. Areas covered: Studies were selected for this review by performing an extensive electronic and hand-search using BIOSIS, EMBASE and Medline, from… 

Efavirenz induced gynecomastia, hidden reality: a case series

The incidence of gynaecomastia is increasing in men with HIV on HAART therapy, proper identification and management will promote better drug adherence.


An overview of gynecomastia is provided based on the current available literature that shows the majority of cases self-resolve within a few years, and the treatment of choice for most cases involves sympathetic reassurance and observation.

Gynecomastia in a Patient Taking Meloxicam—A Case Report

This case presents an instance in which the NSAID, meloxicam, was the only identified variable in a patient who developed unilateral gynecomastia, and his breast tenderness and abnormal exam resolved spontaneously within 4 weeks of cessation ofmeloxicam therapy.

Gynecomastia: Etiologies, Clinical Presentations, Diagnosis, and Management

A concise review of the common presentation, etiologies, diagnosis, and treatment of gynecomastia should aid healthcare professionals who may encounter patients with this condition in their practices.

Efavirenz-induced gynecomastia in a prepubertal girl with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report

Timely recognition of gynecomastia as a side-effect of efavirenz is important in order to intervene while the condition may still be reversible, to sustain adherence to ART and to maintain the sociopsychological health of the child.

Do Adolescents with Gynecomastia Require Routine Evaluation by Endocrinology?

The authors’ data suggest that referral for surgery is warranted if gynecomastia persists beyond 16 years of age and do not suggest routine endocrinology workup, as it adds little value.

A case series of efavirenz induced gynaecomastia

The present study presented a series of two cases that developed ultrasound confirmed gynaecomastia following efavirenz containing HAART, and suggested that proper identification and management will promote better drug adherence.

Gynaecomastia—pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment

Gynaecomastia (enlargement of the male breast tissue) is a common finding in the general population, and administration of androgens might be helpful, as might antiestrogen therapy in men with endogenous overproduction of estrogens.

Gynaecomastia in 786 adult men: clinical and biochemical findings.

This study demonstrates the importance of a thorough examination and provides a comprehensible examination strategy to disclose the underlying pathology leading to the development of gynaecomastia in adulthood.

α1-Adrenergic receptor antagonists and gynecomastia. A case series from the Italian spontaneous reporting system and VigiBase™

The cases of gynecomastia associated with α1A-adrenergic receptor antagonists in the Italian spontaneous reporting system database and in the World Health Organization ICSRs database are analyzed, focusing on tamsulosin use.



Gynecomastia Associated with Fenofibrate

Although fenofibrate-induced gynecomastia appears to be uncommon, patients receiving this medication should be monitored for this adverse drug reaction.

Gynecomastia Possibly Induced by Rosuvastatin

Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of adverse endocrine reactions when statins are prescribed, including newer agents such as rosuvastatin, after a 57‐year‐old man who developed bilateral gynecomastia after 2 months of rosuVastatin therapy.

Gynecomastia during phenothiazine therapy.

The subsequent course of one of these patients appears to make the possibility of a causal relationship between the phenothiazine therapy and the gynecomastia even more likely, and a review of the experience in the hospital uncovered an additional case.

Venlafaxine-Induced Gynecomastia in a Young Patient: A Case Report

From the laboratory findings of an increase in prolactin and estradiol levels and no change in testosterone level and normal hepatic, renal, and thyroid function during venlafaxine therapy, the gynecomastia seen in the case may have been due to an impaired balance in the serum estrogen-serum androgen ratio, whatever the mechanism.

An unusual case of gynecomastia associated with soy product consumption.

  • Jorge MartínezJ. Lewi
  • Medicine
    Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • 2008
This is a very unusual case of gynecomastia related to ingestion of soy products and health care providers should thoroughly review patients' dietary habits to possibly reveal the etiology of medical conditions.

Golf‐Inhibiting Gynecomastia Associated with Atorvastatin Therapy

3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) should be considered as a potential cause when evaluating otherwise unexplainable cases of gynecomastia in patients taking these drugs.

Gynaecomastia Associated with Proton Pump Inhibitors

Considering the widespread use of PPIs, gynaecomastia may affect a large number of patients and doctors should be aware of this potential adverse reaction when prescribing PPIs to their patients over long periods of time.

[Drug-induced gynecomastia].

Criteria of the French method for determining drug causality are discussed and sex hormones, antiandrogens, are frequently involved as well as spironolactone, cimetidine, verapamil and cancer chemotherapy.

Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence for diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia.

Gynecomastia associated with calcium channel blocker therapy.

The Division of Epidemiology and Surveillance, within the US Food and Drug Administration (Rockville, Md), has received 31 reports of gynecomastia occurring after the use of these drugs.