Drug Addiction: The Yin and Yang of Hedonic Homeostasis

  title={Drug Addiction: The Yin and Yang of Hedonic Homeostasis},
  author={G F Koob},
  • G. F. Koob
  • Published 1 May 1996
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Neuron

Preclinical Behavioral Models for Addressing Unmet Needs in Opiate Addiction

This review summarizes the current status of animal behavioral and neurobiological models which were designed to address the multiplicity of factors contributing to the addiction process and is critical in assessing efficacy of novel treatments, in exploring the neuroBIological substrates of reinforcement, dependence, and withdrawal, and in uncovering genetic factors that predispose certain individuals to addiction.

Reinforcement processes in opiate addiction: A homeostatic model

It is argued that both the positive reinforcement produced by acute administration of a drug and the negative affective state produced by withdrawal are common to multiple classes of abused drugs, suggesting that an understanding of homeostatic neuroadaptation within motivational systems provides a key to the etiology, treatment and prevention of drug addiction.

Neural and psychological mechanisms underlying compulsive drug seeking habits and drug memories – indications for novel treatments of addiction*

  • B. Everitt
  • Psychology, Biology
    The European journal of neuroscience
  • 2014
The potential for developing treatments for addiction is considered, including the possibility of targeting drug memory reconsolidation and extinction to reduce Pavlovian influences on drug seeking as a means of promoting abstinence and preventing relapse.

The Motivational Component of Withdrawal in Opiate Addiction: Role of Associative Learning and Aversive Memory in Opiate Addiction from a Behavioral, Anatomical and Functional Perspective

Evidence from a neuropsychopharmacological viewpoint is provided that environmental situations previously paired with the opiate withdrawal syndrome might be able to maintain drug-seeking motivation and a functional model is provided for the formation and retrieval of opiates withdrawal memories.

The neurobiology of addiction.

  • R. Maldonado
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of neural transmission. Supplementum
  • 2003
The existence of bidirectional interactions between different drugs of abuse, such as opioids and cannabinoids, provides further findings to support this common neurobiological substrate for drug addictive processes.

Neuroclinical Framework for the Role of Stress in Addiction

It is hypothesize that a focus on negative emotionality and stress is closely related to the acute neurobiological alterations that are experienced in addiction and may serve as a bridge to a reformulation of the addiction nosology to better capture individual differences in patients for whom the withdrawal/negative affect stage drives compulsive drug taking.

The neurobiology of drug addiction.

  • G. KoobE. Nestler
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences
  • 1997
Animals models have begun to provide insights into the neurobiological basis of reinforcement in drug addiction and Subtle changes in neurochemical function and signal transduction and transcription mechanisms in sensitive neuronal elements in the extended amygdala may be mediators of chronic drug action that lead to vulnerability to relapse and may provide exciting insight into the Neuroadaptations associated with drug addiction.

Substance dependence as a compulsive behavior

The present discussion redefines loss of control as a narrowing of the behavioral repertoire toward drug-seeking behavior and suggests that there are many sources of reinforcement that contribute to this behavioral focus on drug seeking.

Impulsivity resulting from frontostriatal dysfunction in drug abuse: implications for the control of behavior by reward-related stimuli

The neuro-anatomical and neurochemical substrates subserving inhibitory control and motivational processes in the rodent and primate brain and their putative impact on drug seeking are considered and an integrative hypothesis for compulsive reward-seeking in drug abuse is presented.

Craving for Alcohol and Drugs in Animals and Humans

Abstract Research studies indicate that sites and pathways for appetitive drive states, that are located in the limbic system, appear to be responsible for normal and pathological craving for alcohol



Opponent process and drug dependence: Neurobiological mechanisms

Dynamics of drug dependence. Implications of a conditioning theory for research and treatment.

  • A. Wikler
  • Psychology, Biology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1973
To prevent relapse, both conditioned CCCs (conditioned abstinence, CA) and conditioned SAPD should be actively extinguished after DTX by elicitation of CA and programmed SAPD under conditions preventing pharmacological reinforcement.

The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction

Alcohol Addiction: An Enigma among Us

Suppression of corticotropin‐releasing factor in the amygdala attenuates aversive consequences of morphine withdrawal

Results indicate that suppression of intra-amygdala CRF systems weakens the aversive stimulus properties of conditioned opiate withdrawal, and suggest a general role for CRF in coordinating behavioral responses to negative motivational effects of drug withdrawal.

Under Siege: The Brain on Opiates

Corticotropin releasing factor, stress and behavior

The results suggest that endogenous CRF systems in the brain may have a role in mediating behavioral responses to stressors, and may be particularly important in situations where an organism must mobilize not only the pituitary adrenal system, but also the central nervous system in response to environmental challenge.

Opposite Modulation of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior by D1- and D2-Like Dopamine Receptor Agonists

An important dissociation between D1- and D2-like receptor processes in cocaine-seeking behavior is demonstrated and support further evaluation of D1 -like receptor agonists as a possible pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction.

Addiction to Cocaine and Amphetamine