Drinking, smoking, and educational achievement: cross-lagged associations from adolescence to adulthood.

@article{Latvala2014DrinkingSA,
  title={Drinking, smoking, and educational achievement: cross-lagged associations from adolescence to adulthood.},
  author={Antti Latvala and Richard J. Rose and Lea Pulkkinen and Danielle M Dick and Tellervo Korhonen and Jaakko Kaprio},
  journal={Drug and alcohol dependence},
  year={2014},
  volume={137},
  pages={106-13}
}
BACKGROUND Adolescent substance use is associated with lower educational achievement but the directionality of the association remains uncertain. We analyzed data on drinking, smoking and educational achievement to study the associations between substance use and education from early adolescence to young adulthood. METHODS Longitudinal data from four time points (ages 12, 14, 17, and 19-27 years) from a population-based cohort study of Finnish twin individuals were used to estimate bivariate… CONTINUE READING

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