Thirty years on from their initial observation that familiar voice recognition is not the same as unfamiliar voice discrimination (van Lancker and Kreiman, 1987), the current paper reviews available evidence in support of a distinction between familiar and unfamiliar voice processing. Here, an extensive review of the literature is provided, drawing on evidence from four domains of interest: the neuropsychological study of healthy individuals, neuropsychological investigation of brain-damaged individuals, the exploration of voice recognition deficits in less commonly studied clinical conditions, and finally empirical data from healthy individuals. All evidence is assessed in terms of its contribution to the question of interest - is familiar voice processing distinct from unfamiliar voice processing. In this regard, the evidence provides compelling support for van Lancker and Kreiman's early observation. Two considerations result: First, the limits of research based on one or other type of voice stimulus are more clearly appreciated. Second, given the demonstration of a distinction between unfamiliar and familiar voice processing, a new wave of research is encouraged which examines the transition involved as a voice is learned.