Drafting Human Ancestry: What Does the Neanderthal Genome Tell Us about Hominid Evolution? Commentary on Green et al. (2010)

  title={Drafting Human Ancestry: What Does the Neanderthal Genome Tell Us about Hominid Evolution? Commentary on Green et al. (2010)},
  author={Michael Hofreiter},
  booktitle={Human biology},
Abstract Ten years after the first draft versions of the human genome were announced, technical progress in both DNA sequencing and ancient DNA analyses has allowed a research team around Ed Green and Svante Pääbo to complete this task from infinitely more difficult hominid samples: a few pieces of bone originating from our closest, albeit extinct, relatives, the Neanderthals. Pulling the Neanderthal sequences out of a sea of contaminating environmental DNA impregnating the bones and at the… 
Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins
It is argued that future attempts to investigate ancient hybridization between humans and other hominins should explicitly account for population structure, and recommend caution in inferring admixture from geographic patterns of shared polymorphisms.
Anthropological issues in genetic admixture
The contributions of genetic admixture studies are discussed in furthering the authors' understanding of the demographic history of these populations and, more generally, of the role played by genetic admixtures in human.
Unexpected hybridization patterns in Near Eastern terrapins (Mauremys caspica, M. rivulata) indicate ancient gene flow across the Fertile Crescent
It is shown that hybridization is rare along the contact zone of the two species in Turkey, and there is not necessarily a general hybridization pattern in a given species couple and that the extent of gene flow may differ considerably in different parts of the distribution range.
The Hand, the Brain and Man’s Travel in Time
It is believed that bipedalism, together with well-developed hands and the emerging capacity for tool making, were important factors in this process along with such other factors as dietary shifts towards meat and marine food and an evolving capacity to use open fire to process and cook food.
Cat Taming In the Western Mediterranean. Issues, Problematics and Unpredictability In The Light Of Bio-Archaeological Approaches to a Museum Specimen.
The morphological and molecular study of a rare specimen of Felis from an Early Bronze Age horizon is described, offering the opportunity for a brief discussion on cat taming, on the origin of this practice and on the archaeological importance of this specimen for the reconstruction of taming practices in the Western Mediterranean Basin.
Brain mechanisms of acoustic communication in humans and nonhuman primates: An evolutionary perspective
The proposed model assumes age-dependent interactions between the basal ganglia and their cortical targets, similar to vocal learning in some songbirds, and provides a solution to the question for the adaptive value of the “first word”.
Les enjeux anthropologiques du mélange génétique
  • G. Gourjon
  • Bulletins et mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris
  • 2012
RésuméL’étude des mélanges génétiques entre populations humaines directement consécutifs à leurs migrations, confirme ou infirme les données historiques, linguistiques ou archéologiques. Ces


Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA
A 38,000-year-old Neanderthal fossil that is exceptionally free of contamination from modern human DNA is identified and it is revealed that modern human and Neanderthal DNA sequences diverged on average about 500,000 years ago.
The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia
A complete mitochondrial DNA sequence retrieved from a bone excavated in 2008 in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia represents a hitherto unknown type of hominin mtDNA that shares a common ancestor with anatomically modern human and Neanderthal mtDNAs about 1.0 million years ago.
Sequencing and Analysis of Neanderthal Genomic DNA
The characterization of Neanderthals from a new perspective is described, based on the development of a Neanderthal metagenomic library and its high-throughput sequencing and analysis, and the finding that the Neanderthal and human genomes are at least 99.5% identical is found.
A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome
The genomic data suggest that Neandertals mixed with modern human ancestors some 120,000 years ago, leaving traces of Ne andertal DNA in contemporary humans, suggesting that gene flow from Neand Bertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.
Possible Ancestral Structure in Human Populations
Using sequence data from the Environmental Genome Project, strong evidence is found for ancient admixture in both a European and a West African population, with contributions to the modern gene pool of at least 5%.
The Neandertal genome and ancient DNA authenticity
It is argued that only direct assays of DNA sequence positions in which Neandertals differ from all contemporary humans can serve as a reliable means to estimate human contamination, and a similar ‘boot‐strap’ approach is suggested in which interim approaches are applied until sufficient data for more definitive directAssays are acquired.
No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans
The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA, and in combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Ne andertals to early modern human humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.