Draft Genome Sequence of the Sexually Transmitted Pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

  title={Draft Genome Sequence of the Sexually Transmitted Pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis},
  author={Jane M. Carlton and Robert P. Hirt and Joana C. Silva and Arthur L. Delcher and Michael C. Schatz and Qi Zhao and Jennifer R. Wortman and Shelby L. Bidwell and U. Cecilia M. Alsmark and S{\'e}bastien Besteiro and Thomas Sicheritz-Pont{\'e}n and Christophe J Noel and Joel B. Dacks and Peter G. Foster and Cedric Simillion and Yves van de Peer and Diego Miranda-Saavedra and Geoffrey J. Barton and Gareth D Westrop and Sylke Müller and Daniele Dess{\`i} and Pier Luigi Fiori and Qinghu Ren and Ian T. Paulsen and Hanbang Zhang and Felix D Bastida-Corcuera and Augusto Simoes-Barbosa and Mark T Brown and Richard D. Hayes and Mandira Mukherjee and Cheryl Okumura and Rachel E Schneider and Alias J Smith and {\vS}těp{\'a}nka Vaň{\'a}{\vc}ov{\'a} and Maria Villalvazo and Brian J. Haas and Mihaela Pertea and Tamara V. Feldblyum and Terry R. Utterback and Chung-Li Shu and Kazutoyo Osoegawa and Pieter J de Jong and Ivan Hrdý and Lenka Horv{\'a}thov{\'a} and Zuzana Zub{\'a}{\vc}ov{\'a} and Pavel Dole{\vz}al and Shehre-Banoo Malik and John M. Logsdon and Katrin Henze and Arti Gupta and Ching C. Wang and Rebecca L Dunne and J. A. Upcroft and P. Upcroft and Owen White and Steven L. Salzberg and Petrus Tang and Cheng-Hsun Chiu and Ying-Shiung Lee and T Martin Embley and Graham H. Coombs and Jeremy C. Mottram and Jan Tachezy and Claire Fraser-Liggett and Patricia J. Johnson},
  pages={207 - 212}
We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the ∼160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely transpired through lateral gene transfer from bacteria, and amplification of specific gene families implicated in pathogenesis and phagocytosis of host proteins… 

Trichomonas vaginalis pathobiology new insights from the genome sequence.


Current understanding of Trichomonas vaginalis genome as it has emerged over the past decades is conveyed and some the of significant research areas are identified and how Bioinformatics or computational methods can be used for the genome analysis of the T. vaginalis are proposed.

Recent advances in the molecular biology of the protist parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

This review summarizes the major advances in the last five years in the T. vaginalis field with regard to genetics, molecular biology, ecology, and pathogenicity of the parasite.

A recently transferred cluster of bacterial genes in Trichomonas vaginalis - lateral gene transfer and the fate of acquired genes

It is concluded that, although the majority of eukaryote LGTs are single gene occurrences, they may be acquired in clusters of several genes that are subsequently cleansed of evolutionarily less advantageous genes.

Basic biology of Trichomonas vaginalis: current explorations and future directions

Trichomonas vaginalis is a member of the Parabasalia, a group of single-celled eukaryotes within the clade Excavata, which also includes parasites of genera such as Giardia and Trypanosoma and the large genome size, extensive gene duplication, and presence of families of transposable elements are identified.

Genomic Minimalism in the Early Diverging Intestinal Parasite Giardia lamblia

The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified

Characterisation of unusual DNA glycosylases from Trichomonas vaginalis

The creation of an atlas of DNA repair proteins and enzymes present in T. vaginalis and a close evolutionary relative, Tritrichomonas foetus is created via bioinformatical analysis and biochemical analysis reveals TvAAG1 as the first bifunctional AAG type enzyme to be described.

Small RNAs Are Implicated in Regulation of Gene and Transposable Element Expression in the Protist Trichomonas vaginalis

The results identify a possible small RNA pathway mechanism by which the parasite regulates expression of genes and TEs and raise intriguing questions as to the role repeats may play in shaping T. vaginalis genome evolution and the diversity of small RNA pathways in general.



The genome of the protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica

The genome of E. histolytica is presented, which reveals a variety of metabolic adaptations shared with two other amitochondrial protist pathogens: Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, and provides new insights into the workings and genome evolution of a major human pathogen.

Trichomonads under Microscopy

The ultrastructure of T. foetus and T. vaginalis is reviewed, stressing the participation of the axostyle in the process of cell division and showing that the pseudocyst may be a new form in the trichomonad cell cycle and not simply a degenerative form.

Trichomonas vaginalis: in vitro phagocytosis of lactobacilli, vaginal epithelial cells, leukocytes, and erythrocytes.

Investigation of the interaction of two strains of Trichomonas vaginalis with the cell types present in the microenvironment of the parasite during human infections indicates that phagocytosis may be both an efficient means of obtaining nutrients for the parasite and a significant factor in the pathogenesis of trichomonal infections of the human genitourinary tract.

Biological roles of proteases in parasitic protozoa.

Proteases from a variety of protozoan parasites have been characterized at the molecular and cellular levels, and the many roles that proteases play in these organisms are coming into focus. Central

Targeted gene replacement of a ferredoxin gene in Trichomonas vaginalis does not lead to metronidazole resistance

Surprisingly, Fd KO cells are not resistant to metronidazole under aerobic or anaerobic conditions and are capable of producing molecular hydrogen, demonstrating that the Fd gene product eliminated in KO cells is neither necessary for hydrogen production nor metronIDazole activation.

Spliceosomal introns in the deep-branching eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis.

The presence of a splicing apparatus in the protist Trichomonas vaginalis is demonstrated and RNA motifs found in yeast and metazoan introns are shown to be required for splicing, revealing unexpected motif conservation in deep-branching lineages that suggest a simplified mechanism of splicing in primitive unicellular eukaryotes.

Trichomonas vaginalis Lipophosphoglycan Mutants Have Reduced Adherence and Cytotoxicity to Human Ectocervical Cells

The combined results demonstrate that T. vaginalis adherence to host cells is LPG mediated and that an altered LPG leads to reduced adherence and cytotoxicity of this parasite.

Tetratrichomonads from the oral cavity and respiratory tract of humans

A collection of axenic trichomonad strains isolated from the oral cavity and bronchi of patients from pulmonary diseases clinics in Tallin, Estonia revealed that the Estonian strains belong to the genus Tetratrichomonas, with a high similarity to the avian species Tetratichomonas gallinarum.