Doxycycline Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion of Human Cervical Carcinoma Stem Cells
BACKGROUND Tetracyclines such as doxycycline are reported to possess cytotoxic activity against mammalian tumor cells, but the mechanism of their effects on cell proliferation remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS The antitumor effect of doxycycline was investigated in human pancreatic cancer cell line, PANC-1. We also investigated the effect of doxycycline on expression of a potent proangiogenic factor, interleukin (IL)-8. RESULTS In excess of 20 microg/ml, cytotoxic effects of doxycycline were accompanied by G(1)-S cell cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation in PANC-1 cells. Doxycycline consistently activated transcription of p53, p21 and Fas/FasL-cascade-related genes, while reducing the expression of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Doxycycline (5 microg/ml) below the cytotoxic level suppressed endogenous and paclitaxel-induced IL-8 expression. In the mouse xenograft model, doxycycline treatment was shown to suppress tumor growth by 80%. CONCLUSION These data suggest that doxycycline exerts its antitumor effect by activating proapoptotic genes, inhibiting IL-8 expression, and suppressing antiapoptotic genes.