Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (−)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days

@article{Shara2004DoseAT,
  title={Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (−)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days},
  author={Michael A Shara and S E Ohia and Taharat Yasmin and Andrea M. Zardetto-Smith and Anthony E. Kincaid and Manashi Bagchi and Archana Chatterjee and Debasis Bagchi and Sidney J Stohs},
  journal={Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry},
  year={2004},
  volume={254},
  pages={339-346}
}
Abstract(−)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also… 
An overview of the safety and efficacy of a novel, natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX) for weight management.
TLDR
Clinical studies demonstrate the safety, bioavailability and efficacy of HCA-SX in weight management and show concentration-dependent release of serotonin in isolated rat brain cortex, which may explain its appetite suppressive action.
Efficacy of a novel, natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX, niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract in weight management in human volunteers: a pilot study
In this pilot study, the efficacy of a novel, natural extract of a highly bioavailable, calciumpotassium salt of (‐)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) alone and in combination with a niacin-bound chromium
Safety of a Novel Calcium/Potassium Salt of Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA-SX): I. Two-Generation Reproduction Toxicity Study
TLDR
Dietary exposure of HCA-SX to parental male and female rats of both sexes during the premating and mating periods, for both sexes, and during gestation and lactation in case of female rats, did not reveal any remarkable incidence of mortality or abnormal clinical signs.
Safety of a Novel Calcium/Potassium Saltof (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA-SX): II.Developmental Toxicity Study in Rats
TLDR
HCA-SX was not found to be teratogenic in the Sprague-Dawley rat at the dietary exposure levels of 1000, 3000, and 10,000 ppm, equivalent to the dose levels of 103, 352, or 1240 mg/kg/day, respectively.
Safety assessment of a calcium-potassium salt of (−)-hydroxycitric acid
TLDR
The consumption of HCA-SX at dose level of up to 4667 mg/day is considered safe and there were no macroscopic abnormalities for any examined tissues at scheduled necropsies.
Safety assessment of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt.
TLDR
There is sufficient qualitative and quantitative scientific evidence, including animal and human data suggesting that intake of HCA at levels up to 2800 mg/day is safe for human consumption, and the structure, mechanism of action, long history of use and other toxicity studies indicate that HCA-SX is unlikely to cause reproductive or developmental effects.
EFFECT OF NATURAL EXTRACT OF HYDROXYCITRIC ACID ON LIPID PROFILE, LIVER AND TESTES OF ADULT MALE RATS
TLDR
The effect of GC/HCA on body weight and lipid profile is dose and duration dependent and higher dose is more effective in reducing TBW and LDL/HDL ratio.
(−)-Hydroxycitric acid reduced fat deposition via regulating lipid metabolism-related gene expression in broiler chickens
TLDR
Supplemental (−)-HCA inhibited lipogenesis by inhibiting ACLY, SREBP-1c and FAS expression, and accelerated lipolysis through enhancing HL activity and PPARα expression, which eventually led to the reduced abdominal fat deposition in broiler chickens.
In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of Garcinia or Hydroxycitric Acid: A Review
TLDR
The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown “no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)” at levels up to 2800 mg/day, suggesting its safety for use.
Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement.
TLDR
Under the current experimental conditions, HCA-SX proved to be effective in restricting body weight gain in adult rats and upregulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represent a distinct effect of dietary HCA -SX supplementation.
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