Dose Response of Sheep Poisoned with Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea)

@article{Stegelmeier1999DoseRO,
  title={Dose Response of Sheep Poisoned with Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea)},
  author={Bryan L. Stegelmeier and Lynn F. James and Kip E. Panter and Dale R Gardner and James A. Pfister and Michael H. Ralphs and Russell J. Molyneux},
  journal={Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation},
  year={1999},
  volume={11},
  pages={448 - 456}
}
Locoweed poisoning occurs when livestock consume swainsonine-containing Astragalus and Oxytropis species over several weeks. Although the clinical and histologic changes of poisoning have been described, the dose or duration of swainsonine ingestion that results in significant or irreversible damage is not known. The purpose of this research was to document the swainsonine doses that produce clinical intoxication and histologic lesions. Twenty-one mixed-breed wethers were dosed by gavage with… Expand
Clinical and pathological comparison of Astragalus lentiginosus and Ipomoea carnea poisoning in goats.
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It is suggested that I. carnea-induced clinical signs and lesions are due to swainsonine and that calystegines contribute little or nothing to toxicity in goats in the presence of swains onine. Expand
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Effects of locoweed on serum swainsonine and selected serum constituents in sheep during acute and subacute oral/intraruminal exposure.
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Rapid changes in serum ALK-P and Fe concentrations without parallel changes in other damage markers indicate that acute exposure to swainsonine induces metabolic changes that may impair animal production and health before events of cytotoxicity thought to induce clinical manifestation of locoism. Expand
Pathogenesis and preventive treatment for animal disease due to locoweed poisoning.
TLDR
The current research on locoweed is reviewed, including on species variation, pathogenesis, damage and poisoning prevention measures, with a focus on toxic component in locoweeds swainsonine. Expand
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TLDR
The results show that I. carnea has teratogenic potential in goats and ultrasounds were useful in evaluating fetotoxicity and teratogenicity. Expand
Effects of prepartum ingestion of Ipomoea carnea on postpartum maternal and neonate behavior in goats.
TLDR
It is suggested that the offspring of pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays. Expand
The guinea pig as an animal model for Ipomoea carnea induced alpha-mannosidosis.
The toxic effects of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa were evaluated in guinea pigs by administration of dry leaves during 45 days. Swainsonine and calystegines B(1), B(2) and C(1) were isolated andExpand
Appearance and disappearance of swainsonine in serum and milk of lactating ruminants with nursing young following a single dose exposure to swainsonine (locoweed; Oxytropis sericea).
TLDR
Following a single dose oral exposure to 0.8 mg swainsonine/kg BW provided by a locoweed extract, swains onine was detected in the serum and milk of lactating ewes and cows, and rises in serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed in the eWes. Expand
Multiple bovine abortions with evidence of fetal locoism from pre-clinically intoxicated dams
Chronic consumption of specific plant species from the genera Oxytropis, Astragalus, lpomeoa, and Swainsonia, commonly known as locoweeds, is well known to induce locoism in grazing animals. LocoismExpand
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References

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Tissue swainsonine clearance in sheep chronically poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea).
TLDR
It is implied that poisoned sheep have significant tissue swainsonine concentrations and animals exposed to locoweed should be withheld from slaughter for at least 25 d (10 T(1/2)) to ensure that the locoweeds toxin has cleared from animal tissues and products. Expand
The pathogenesis and toxicokinetics of locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) poisoning in livestock.
TLDR
All tissues of poisoned animals contained swainsonine, and the clearance rates from most tissues was about 20 hours (T1/2 half life), which suggests that poisoned animals should be allowed a 28-day withdrawal to insure complete swains onine clearance. Expand
Tissue and serum swainsonine concentrations in sheep ingesting Astragalus lentiginosus (locoweed).
TLDR
It is suggested that swainsonine is present in tissues of animals eating locoweed and that in most tissues the amount was directly correlated to the swainonine dose ingested, but not to the length of exposure. Expand
The Lesions of Locoweed (Astragalus mollissimus), Swainsonine, and Castanospermine in Rats
TLDR
Results suggest that swainsonine causes lesions similar to those caused by locoweed and is probably the primary locoweeds toxin; castanospermine at high doses causes vacuolar changes in the kidney and thyroid gland; and castanos permine intoxication results in degenerative vacuolation of hepatocytes and skeletal myocytes, similar to genetic glycogenosis. Expand
Serum swainsonine concentration and alpha-mannosidase activity in cattle and sheep ingesting Oxytropis sericea and Astragalus lentiginosus (locoweeds).
TLDR
Increased swainsonine activity was detected in the serum of cattle and of sheep in the high- and low-dose groups within 24 hours after treatment with locoweed, and decreased serum alpha-mannosidase activities returned to normal or higher activities within 6 days after treatment was discontinued. Expand
Relationship between ingestion of the locoweed Oxytropis sericea and congestive right-sided heart failure in cattle.
TLDR
In field observations of young cattle grazing on certain high-altitude ranges infested with the locoweed Oxytropis sericea, a high frequency of clinical congestive right ventricular failure was identified and an experiment was set up to test the relationship of Osericea to congestiveright-ventricular failure. Expand
Pathology of Locoweed Poisoning in Sheep
Three locoweeds, Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus pubentissimus, and A. lentigimosus were fed experimentally to yearling wethers for 60 days. Clinical signs were central nervous impairment resulting inExpand
Feed preferences and habituation of sheep poisoned by locoweed.
TLDR
Four hypotheses were tested to evaluate locoweed's (Astragalus lentiginosus) addictive nature and sheep show neither initial preference nor addiction to locoweeds but may acquire preference (habituation). Expand
Swainsonine toxicosis suppresses appetite and retards growth in weanling rats.
TLDR
Two groups of weanling rats were treated with swainsonine, the toxin responsible for 'pea-struck' and locoism in grazing animals, for 21 days and marked retardation of growth consequent to profound suppression of appetite was caused. Expand
The effects of castanospermine and swainsonine on the activity and synthesis of intestinal sucrase.
TLDR
In in vitro studies with the purified enzyme, castanospermine was found to be a competitive inhibitor of intestinal sucrase, but it was a noncompetitive inhibitors of intestinal maltase, and a number of other glucosidase inhibitors that inhibit sucrases activity in vitro are also described. Expand
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