Dorsal fin in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias: A dynamic stabilizer for fast swimming

  title={Dorsal fin in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias: A dynamic stabilizer for fast swimming},
  author={Theagarten Lingham‐Soliar},
  journal={Journal of Morphology},
Transverse sections of the skin in the dorsal fin of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, and spotted raggedtooth shark, Carcharias taurus, show large numbers of dermal fiber bundles, which extend from the body into the fin. [] Key Result The bundles are tightly grouped together in staggered formation (not arranged in a straight line or in rows). This arrangement of dermal fibers gives tensile strength without impeding fiber movement.
Caudal fin in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Lamnidae): A dynamic propeller for fast, efficient swimming
Overall, the anatomy and mechanics of the dorsal lobe of C. carcharias facilitate greater control of movement compared to the ventral lobe, and provides considerable potential for an elastic mechanism in the animal's swimming motions and consequently for energy conservation.
Taphonomic evidence for high-speed adapted fins in thunniform ichthyosaurs
It is the first mechanostructural study of the control surfaces of a Jurassic ichthyosaur that adds essential evidence in support of the view that these forms were high-speed thunniform swimmers.
Morphological Characterization and Hydrodynamic Behavior of Shortfin Mako Shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) Dorsal Fin Denticles
The shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is one of the fastest marine fishes, reaching speeds of up to 70 km·h−1. Their speed is related to the skin surface design composed of dermal denticles.
Convergence in Thunniform Anatomy in Lamnid Sharks and Jurassic Ichthyosaurs.
Among extinct ichthyosaurs the Jurassic forms Ichthyosaurus and Stenopterygius share a number of anatomical specializations with lamnid sharks that allow their inclusion within the mode of high-speed thunniform swimming to which only two other equally distinctive phylogenetic groups belong, tuna and dolphins-a striking testaments to evolutionary convergence.
The functional role of caudal and anal/dorsal fins during the C-start of a bluegill sunfish
It is suggested that the active control of the anal/dorsal fins can be related to retaining the stability of the sunfish against roll and pitch movements during the C-start.
Scale morphology and flexibility in the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus and the blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus
Manual manipulation of the scales at 16 regions on the body and fins revealed a range of scale flexibility, from regions of nonerectable scales such as on the leading edge of the fins to highly erectable scales along the flank of the shortfin mako shark body.
A new Chinese specimen indicates that ‘protofeathers’ in the Early Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Sinosauropteryx are degraded collagen fibres
A new specimen of Sinosauropteryx is reported which shows that the integumental structures proposed as protofeathers are the remains of structural fibres that provide toughness.
A unique cross section through the skin of the dinosaur Psittacosaurus from China showing a complex fibre architecture
  • T. Lingham‐Soliar
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2008
This paper reports on a unique preservation of soft tissues in the ventrolateral region of the plant-eating dinosaur Psittacosaurus from the Jehol biota of China, which includes multiple layers of collagenous fibres in excess of 25, among the highest recorded in vertebrates.
New findings reveal that the middle Triassic ichthyosaur Mixosaurus cornalianus is the oldest amniote with a dorsal fin.
Two excellently preserved specimens of Mixosaurus cornalianus from the Anisian layers of the Middle Triassic Formazione di Besano, with soft parts associated with well-articulated skeletal elements,
The incidence of bent dorsal fins in free‐ranging cetaceans
The occurrence of bent dorsals could be influenced by a set of variables rather than by a single factor but, irrespective of the cause, it is suggested that it does not directly affect the animals' survivorship.


The ichthyosaur integument: skin fibers, a means for a strong, flexible and smooth skin
The presence of a complex system of fibers, which includes an orthogonal meshwork of the finest of these, suggests that creasing of the skin would have been minimized, a condition highly important in reducing drag during the locomotion of marine animals.
Biaxial stressing tests demonstrate that the skins of the spot and the skipjack do not behave as simple crossed-fiber systems, and are therefore incapable of transmitting forces down the lengths of these fishes or acting as "extensible" systems.
Locomotor function of the dorsal fin in teleost fishes: experimental analysis of wake forces in sunfish.
Empirical evidence is presented that vortex structures generated by the soft dorsal fin upstream can constructively interact with those produced by the caudal fin downstream, and Reinforcement of circulation around the tail through interception of the dorsal fin's vortices is proposed as a mechanism for augmenting wake energy and enhancing thrust.
The mechanics of cutting and the form of shark teeth (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii)
The mechanical implications of different tooth designs are scanned, hypotheses that relate to primary considerations of the physics of cutting compliant substrates are posed, and a preliminary approach is offered that is intended as a useful guide to further studies on sharks and on other vertebrate groups.
Body Form and Locomotion in Sharks
The locomotor mechanism of sharks is adapted for an efficient cruising swimming but at the same time, the potential instability in the sagittal plan allows for the production of turning moments that are used in attack and feeding.
Great white sharks : the biology of Carcharodon carcharias
The Behavior of White Sharks and Their Pinniped Prey during Predatory Attacks, and the Implications for Predator Avoidance, is published.
A few species of sharks have jaws structurally effective for crushing hard-shelled prey, but the functions of the jaws and teeth of the remaining species, that is of most kinds of sharks, are
Predation by White Sharks Carcharodon carcharias (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae) Upon Chelonians, with New Records from the Mediterranean Sea and a First Record of the Ocean Sunfish Mola mola (Osteichthyes: Molidae) as Stomach Contents
The white shark may be the chief marine predator of adult chelonians in the Mediterranean Sea, albeit the impact of this predation upon turtle populations is nominal compared to other sources of mortality.
Swimming kinematics of juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).
This study, the first quantitative kinematic comparison of size-matched scombrids, confirmed significantly different swimming kinematics in the two species, indicating that the tuna juveniles are not more efficient swimmers.
Heterocercal tail function in leopard sharks: a three-dimensional kinematic analysis of two models
  • FerryLauder
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1996
Three-dimensional angle calculations show that the terminal lobe leads the ventral lobe through a beat, as predicted by the classical model, and dye-stream visualizations confirmed that this pattern of movement deflects water ventrally and posteriorly to the moving tail, providing strong support for the classical models.