Doping in Two Elite Athletics Competitions Assessed by Randomized-Response Surveys

@article{Ulrich2017DopingIT,
  title={Doping in Two Elite Athletics Competitions Assessed by Randomized-Response Surveys},
  author={Rolf Ulrich and Harrison G Pope and L{\'e}a Cl{\'e}ret and Andrea Petr{\'o}czi and Tam{\'a}s Nepusz and Jay R. Schaffer and Gen Kanayama and Rae Dawn Comstock and Perikles Simon},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
  year={2017},
  volume={48},
  pages={211-219}
}
BackgroundDoping in sports compromises fair play and endangers health. To deter doping among elite athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees testing of several hundred thousand athletic blood and urine samples annually, of which 1–2% test positive. Measures using the Athlete Biological Passport suggest a higher mean prevalence of about 14% positive tests. Biological testing, however, likely fails to detect many cutting-edge doping techniques, and thus the true prevalence of doping… 
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