Doping in Two Elite Athletics Competitions Assessed by Randomized-Response Surveys

  title={Doping in Two Elite Athletics Competitions Assessed by Randomized-Response Surveys},
  author={Rolf Ulrich and Harrison G Pope and L{\'e}a Cl{\'e}ret and Andrea Petr{\'o}czi and Tam{\'a}s Nepusz and Jay R. Schaffer and Gen Kanayama and Rae Dawn Comstock and Perikles Simon},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
BackgroundDoping in sports compromises fair play and endangers health. To deter doping among elite athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees testing of several hundred thousand athletic blood and urine samples annually, of which 1–2% test positive. Measures using the Athlete Biological Passport suggest a higher mean prevalence of about 14% positive tests. Biological testing, however, likely fails to detect many cutting-edge doping techniques, and thus the true prevalence of doping… 
Prevalence estimate of blood doping in elite track and field at the introduction of the Athlete Biological Passport
This study estimates the prevalence of blood doping based on haematological parameters in a large cohort of track & field athletes measured at two international major events with a hypothesized decrease in prevalence due to the ABP introduction.
Prevalence Estimate of Blood Doping in Elite Track and Field Athletes During Two Major International Events
This study presents the first comparison of blood doping prevalence in elite athletes based on biological measurements from major international events that may help scientists and experts to use the ABP in a more efficient and deterrent way.
The doping critical attitude of elite sports coaches in combat sports
Youth coaches take a significant role in the athlete’s network and represent an influencing factor on doping prevention, which has been investigated insufficiently by empirical research in young
Perception of the Current Anti-doping Regime – A Quantitative Study Among German Top-Level Cyclists and Track and Field Athletes
The perceived effectiveness of 14 anti-doping measures was surveyed among 146 top athletes from Germany and shows improved diagnostics was considered to be the most effective remedy for doping, followed by increased bans and the implementation of an anti-Doping law.
Redefining Sport Based on the Russian Doping Experience.
An essential component of the 3P program is protecting the clean athlete, which requires a paradigm shift away from the status quo, ‘‘the cheats are usually a step ahead’’ toward a new mantra ‘'the testers must be a few steps ahead'.
Frequency and type of adverse analytical findings in athletics: differences among disciplines.
The results suggest that the proportion of athletes that are using banned substances is similar among the different disciplines of athletics, however, there are substantial differences in the class of drugs more commonly used in each discipline.


Randomized response estimates for doping and illicit drug use in elite athletes.
Prevalence of blood doping in samples collected from elite track and field athletes.
It is found that the world's top-level athletes are not only heterogeneous in physiological and anthropometric factors but also in their doping behavior, with contrasting attitudes toward doping between countries.
Prevalence of Doping Use in Elite Sports: A Review of Numbers and Methods
This review outlines the various methods that exist and presents the scarce data available in this area and concludes that a combination of questionnaires using the Randomised Response Technique and models of biological parameters is able to provide the statistical possibilities to reveal accurate estimates of this often undisclosed practice.
Doping in elite sports in Germany: results of a www survey
Abstract It is still unknown how many top-level athletes use banned drugs or practices. In a www survey, we used the randomized response technique to shed light on this issue. With the question “Have
The frequency of doping in elite sport: Results of a replication study
The difficulty of measuring the prevalence of doping in elite sport is a recurring topic in the scientific literature on doping. The Randomized Response Technique is a method for asking such
Associations between Physical and Cognitive Doping – A Cross-Sectional Study in 2.997 Triathletes
The use of substances to improve physical and cognitive performance was associated on both levels of legality (enhancement vs. doping) suggesting that athletes do not use substances for a specific goal but may have a general propensity to enhance, which is important for understanding why people use such substances.
Sport-Induced Substance Use—An Empirical Study to the Extent within a German Sports Association
Nearly 21% of respondents had used substances for training or competitions that were taken for a purpose other than performance enhancement in the last year, and 49% had done so at some point in their life.
“The science of doping” revisited: Fallacies of the current anti-doping regime
Abstract Biomedical doping tests specifically, as well as doping test practises as a whole, have severe shortcomings which are based upon the fact that test procedures are in principle imperfect.
Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use by Athletes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
It was difficult to generalize regarding DS use by athletes because of the lack of homogeneity among studies, but the data generally indicated that elite athletes used DSs much more than their non-elite counterparts.
A Comparison of the Cheater Detection and the Unrelated Question Models: A Randomized Response Survey on Physical and Cognitive Doping in Recreational Triathletes
The results suggest that the two models can provide converging prevalence estimates and the high rate of cheaters estimated by the CDM suggests that the present results must be seen as a lower bound and that the true prevalence of doping might be considerably higher.